COMMUNIQUE
MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE COORDINATING BUREAU
OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, 19-20 May, 1998

 
  1. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation of the Non-Aligned countries met in Cartagena de Indias on 19 and 20 May, 1998, to prepare the Movement for the Summit to be held in Durban, South Africa and to consider issues of major importance for the Movement.
  2. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed with appreciation the report of the Chairman on the activities of the Movement since the Ministerial meeting held in New York on 25 September, 1997, which contributed to the strengthening and to the promotion of the unity and solidarity among the members of the Movement.

  3. CHAPTER 1 GLOBAL ISSUES

     REVIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION
     
     

  4. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized that even when the specter of a nuclear holocaust seems more remote than in the recent past and several countries have resolved to reduce their military budgets in order to devote such resources to meet the social and economic development requirements of their people, great powers continue to endanger the future of humankind through the unjustified stockpiling and development of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and a rampant traffic in armaments continues to put in jeopardy the security and stability of vast regions of the world.
  5. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized that the world today is still far from being a peaceful, just and secure place. Simmering disputes, violent conflicts, aggression and foreign occupation, interference in the internal affairs of States, policies of hegemony and domination, ethnic strife, religious intolerance, xenophobia, new forms of racism and narrowly conceived nationalism are, inter alia, major and dangerous obstacles to harmonious coexistence among States and peoples and have even led to the disintegration of States and societies.
  6. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern over the adverse external economic environment that continues to impact negatively upon the economies of the developing countries. The exports of these countries continue to be hampered by all forms of protectionism and their development efforts remain impaired by inordinate burdens of external indebtedness and restricted and volatile short-term financial flows, which have resulted in an overall net transfer of resources to the developed countries, and by a lack of adequate access to technology.
  7. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that some States seek to unilaterally impose their policies, cultural, and social criteria on developing countries and to exercise their power and influence in international organizations and agencies. The experience of the member states of NAM indeed shows that some powerful members of the international community continue to insist on their models and perceptions as standards for universal behaviour. Moreover, attempts are increasingly being made to use the United Nations to this end. Consequently, countries of the Non Aligned Movement are increasingly the object of unilateral or multilateral interventionism in their internal affairs under various pretexts. In this connection, they agreed that it is important to express solidarity with any member of the Movement who is a victim of economic coercive measures, interference in internal affairs, use or threat of use of military power, isolation and discrimination, imposed in opposition to principles of the NAM and the Charter of the United Nations.
  8. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation were of the view that the collapse of the bipolar system, while raising hope for ensuring a universal, just and durable peace that are yet to be fulfilled, has resulted in a worrisome and damaging unipolarity in political and military terms that is conducive to further inequality and injustice and, therefore, to a more complex and disquieting world situation. They felt that this fact has been acknowledged in positions taken even by countries outside the NAM, and emphasized that the member states of NAM should work further towards the establishment of a new system of international relations characterized by an absence of want, fear and all forms of intolerance, and based on peace, justice, equality, democracy and full respect of the principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter and international law. In this context, they reaffirmed their conviction that the Movement should continue to play an active and effective role for the attainment of that objective.
  9. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized that Cold War era legacies such as foreign occupation, the use or threat of use of force, pressure, interference in internal affairs and sanctions inconsistent with international law still constitute a main disturbing factor in establishing fair and equitable international relations conforming with the strong desire of the overwhelming majority of governments and peoples and emphasized the need to continue with their consolidated efforts for the removal of such legacies.
  10. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also were of the view that these circumstances compel the Movement more than ever to work towards cooperation and a sense of full partnership in the international field, for the promotion of peace and social and economic development.
  11. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the need to protect and promote the principles and objectives of the independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of States, the attainment of general and complete disarmament under effective international control, the right of peoples under colonial or other forms of alien domination or foreign occupation to realize their right to self-determination, equality among nations, full respect for international law, pacific settlement of disputes, the democratization of international relations, economic and social development, an equitable international economic order, the development of human resources, the protection and promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, and the coexistence of different systems, cultures and societies. In this context, they emphasized the need for the pursuit of their objectives through a dynamic adaptation to the new realities and the promotion of a more just and equitable system of international relations, as well as through the articulation of appropriate strategies, initiatives and projects.
  12. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that while the end of the Cold War should have brought greater attention and concern to economic and social development issues on the part of the international community, they have not yet reached the pre-eminence that is required nor the degree of commitment necessary to resolve the serious problems faced by countries such as those of the Movement. In fact, in recent years, there has been a decline in resources made available for international development cooperation. The emergence of the market-based paradigm of development has also been accompanied by efforts to shift the entire onus for the international development cooperation to the private sector. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the role of the State in development and in international cooperation for development.
  13. Furthermore, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation have witnessed the emergence of a trend in developed countries to ignore their past commitments and to marginalize financing of development from international negotiations, to introduce new conditionalities and to erode and distort long-standing concepts to the detriment of Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries. They therefore stressed the need for the Movement to ensure an active presence in international economic and commercial negotiations, with strong, concerted and common positions.
  14. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined that the international situation continues to be very fluid. The climate of uncertainty persists. The tendency to focus attention primarily on the interests and concerns of a limited number of developed countries continues, while recent commitments made in some major areas of international cooperation remain unfulfilled. The interests of the developing countries continue to be marginalized. Private foreign investment tends to be concentrated in a few developing countries and a few sectors, and a significant part of these flows is speculative and volatile in nature. The social and economic infrastructure in the developing countries is lagging behind, constraining growth prospects. It is imperative that this state of affairs be rectified as a matter of priority. The fundamental requirement of development must be reflected in the new priorities of international cooperation.
  15. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the fact that the gap between the developed and developing countries, specially the LDCs, continues to widen, and reiterated that the problems deriving from poverty and social injustices, far from being overcome, have been significantly aggravated. They expressed particular concern over the economic situation in LDCs, the majority of which are located in Africa. They noted further that economic underdevelopment, poverty and social injustice constitute a source of frustration and a cause of new conflicts, and that stability, security, democracy and peace cannot be consolidated without rectifying the growing international inequalities. They therefore felt that there was an urgent need to regenerate the economies of the LDCs in order to achieve sustained growth and sustainable development, including through the full and effective implementation of the special measures incorporated in the Programme of Action for the 1990's for the LDCs.
  16. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation particularly emphasized that the high social cost of the structural adjustment and opening up of the economies of the countries of the Movement should not be borne by developing countries alone, specially the poorest sectors of their population. It is the developed countries that have derived the greatest benefits from this change in the world economy, while the alarming concentration of wealth in a few hands, a consequence of the unbridled market economy, heralds social instability. Therefore they found it unacceptable that rich and powerful nations continue to establish unilateral conditionalities on open trade, a concept which they themselves promote, to gain advantages from the countries of the Movement, or what is even worse, to impose standards or push through stances intended to satisfy their internal political needs. They declared that to demand from the countries of the Movement the opening up of their economies while imposing restrictions and tariff obstructions on their products is a morally reprehensible conduct.
  17. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation pointed out that the globalization of the world economy, aided by the revolution in communications and data processing, has created new challenges and opportunities. However, this globalization process has translated itself into an increased marginalization for the majority of the developing countries.
  18. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation in this context, underlined that the prevalence of neo-liberal policies places an even larger strain on the economies of Non-Aligned and other developing countries on actions geared at social development.
  19. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted that while the benefits of the deepening interdependence amongst economies are clearly manifested in the developed countries, they have been fragile in the case of the developing countries as a whole. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation therefore called for the implementation of measures by the international community to create a more balanced and participatory system of international economic relations in which such interdependence would benefit all nations.
  20. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that all nations have the right to freely establish their own political and economic systems on the basis of respect for the principles of national sovereignty, self-determination and non-interference in the internal affairs of others.
  21. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their satisfaction for the important role that the General Assembly exerts in maintaining international peace and security in accordance with resolution 377 of the General Assembly of 3 November 1950, titled: "Uniting for Peace", which led to the convening of the Tenth Emergency Special Session on "Illegal Israeli actions in occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the occupied Palestinian territory" as called for by the XIIth Ministerial Conference of the Movement.
  22. In this regard, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed with appreciation the most recent decisions adopted by the General Assembly to strengthen and revitalize its role as the highest deliberative and decision making organ of the United Nations in which all Member States equally participate. In particular, they cited the decisions related to the consideration by the General Assembly of the Reports of other main organs, especially the Report of the Security Council to the General Assembly and the Report of the Secretary General on the work of the Organization, as an important step towards a more balanced and sustained interaction between the General Assembly and these organs. Nevertheless, proposals to erode or weaken the comprehensive mandate of the General Assembly and actions geared at preventing it from fulfilling the leading role assigned to it by the United Nations Charter are totally unacceptable.

  23. THE ROLE OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
     
     

  24. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated the Non-Aligned countries' commitment to respect the principles and objectives of Non-Alignment and expressed their determination to make every effort to further strengthen the Non-Aligned Movement's capacity for action and to develop concrete modalities to enhance the influence and impact of its decisions on world affairs.
  25. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation, reaffirming their faith and commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, stressed the necessity for further cooperation in strengthening the important role played by the Non-Aligned countries within the United Nations, which more than ever should be increased.
  26. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their appreciation to the members of the Ad-Hoc Panel of Economists of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries who, in accordance with the mandate given by the XIIth Ministerial Conference held in New Delhi, are preparing an assessment of the current international economic situation from the perspective of the developing countries, in order to assist in developing a positive agenda of the South and, accordingly, to report to the XIIth Summit of the Movement to be held in South Africa. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their wish that the Panel should continue its work after the submission of its report to the XIIth Summit, in order to further the economic priorities of the Movement.
  27. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their satisfaction with regards to the meetings of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs from the former Chair-Countries of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), as well as the tasks performed by the representatives from Colombia, as current NAM Chair-Country, Indonesia, as former NAM Chairman, and South Africa, as future NAM Chair-Country - the NAM Troika - to enhance the role of the Movement and promote the dialogue with the developed countries. In this regard, they underlined the importance of the full participation of all members of the movement through the NAM Coordinating Bureau, in shaping the agenda of these meetings. They also agreed on the timely reporting of the outcome of these meetings to the Coordinating Bureau.
  28. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated the importance of the message conveyed by the Chairman of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, to the Group of 8 in keeping with the mandate contained in "The Call from Colombia", adopted by the Heads of State or Government at the Eleventh Summit and as elaborated in the final document of the XIIth Ministerial meeting held in New Delhi. They emphasized how important it is for the Movement to continue its consultations with the G-8 with a view to promote a meaningful and productive dialogue so as to reach better understanding and to respond more positively to the development aspirations of the developing countries.
  29. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the mandate of the Cartagena Final Document of the Eleventh Conference of the Heads of State or Government on the Non-Aligned Countries, and reiterated the need for the Movement to enhance its unity and cohesion and coordinate positions of Member countries towards major international issues, with the view to strengthening their negotiating leverage vis-a-vis developed countries.
  30. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized that in order for the Movement to enhance its role at the international level, it must continue to work on expanding and reinforcing its ability and capacity for initiative, representation and negotiation, as well as its ethical, political and moral strength as the principal forum representing the interests and aspirations of the developing world. In this regard, they reaffirmed that full respect for the founding principles of the Movement adopted in Bandung (1955) and the principles set forth in the United Nations Charter is its irrevocable political and moral commitment. They considered that the role of the Movement in the attainment of its objectives hinges upon the solidarity of its members, its unity and cohesion, founded on a culture of peace and development, and requires joint efforts to overcome areas of disagreement and resolving differences in a peaceful manner.
  31. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted the important and positive role played by the Joint Coordination Committee of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 (JCC) over the past few years in advancing the common positions of the developing countries on different global issues. They are of the view that such contacts and consultation should be further increased for harmonizing the efforts and bringing greater coherence and consolidation to the unity and promotion of greater interaction among the developing countries.
  32. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the leading role of the Coordinating Bureau and commended the work carried out by its working groups on various fields in New York. They were of the view that those working groups should continue and expand their activities and that new working groups should be created as necessary with the increasing complexities in the work of the UN.
  33. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that concertation was one of the basis of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries and, they called for the holding of joint NAM actions in the context of important international conferences and meetings as a means of furthering NAM's positions and aspirations in all fields of international relations.
  34. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that concertation was one of the basis of the Non-Aligned Countries, and they called for the holding of joint NAM actions in the context of important international conferences and meetings as a means of furthering NAM's positions and aspirations in all fields of international relations.
  35. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underscored the role of NAM in promoting economic growth and development of Non-Aligned countries and expressed their determination to reactivate programmes of economic and technical cooperation among its members. In this context, they were of the view that new economic and technical cooperation programmes should be realistic and concentrated in fields of common interest that would allow the enhancement of scarce resources and provide an aggregate value of interest to all NAM countries.
  36. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that solidarity among its members is a must for the Movement, mainly when NAM countries are threatened from abroad through acts of aggression, the threat to use force or unilateral coercive measures, all of which are, by nature, contrary to the principles of the Movement and of international law.

  37. AGENDA FOR PEACE
     
     

  38. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation observed that efforts should continue to be made, taking into account the interests of all members of the Movement, to evolve a common position on the elements of "An Agenda for Peace" and its Supplement. They recognized that the principles of the UN Charter and international law were applicable to the elements contained in an Agenda for Peace and its Supplement.
  39. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underscored the need for the United Nations to implement immediately the decisions as contained in the annexes to Resolution A51/242 of the General Assembly particularly in the area of United Nations imposed sanctions. They also underlined the request made to the President of the General Assembly to consult on the possibility of continuing the activities of the informal Open-Ended Working Group on An Agenda for Peace in the areas of Post-Conflict Peace-Building and Preventive Diplomacy and Peace-Making on the basis of the work already accomplished in these areas and with a view to concluding its work.
  40. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled that the imposition of sanctions is an issue of serious concern for Non-Aligned countries. They reaffirmed that the imposition of sanctions in accordance with the Charter should be considered only after all means of pacific settlement of disputes under Chapter VI of the Charter have been exhausted and a thorough consideration undertaken of the short and long-term effects of such sanctions. Sanctions are a blunt instrument, the use of which raises fundamental ethical questions of whether suffering inflicted on vulnerable groups in the target country are a legitimate means of exerting pressure. The objectives of sanctions is not to punish or otherwise exact retribution.
  41. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that the objectives of sanctions regimes should be clearly defined. Sanctions should be lifted as soon as the objectives are achieved. They should be imposed for a specified time-frame and based on tenable, legal grounds. The conditions demanded of the country or party on which sanctions are imposed should be clearly defined and subject to periodic review. Attempts to impose or to prolong the application of sanctions to achieve political ends should be rejected.
  42. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also reiterated that all sanctions regimes must contain specific and appropriate measures to ensure that humanitarian supplies reach the affected, innocent populations. Efforts must also made to ensure that the development capacity of the target country is not adversely affected by sanction regimes.
  43. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that the functioning of the Sanctions Committee requires to be further improved. In this context the Ministers welcomed the proposals that had been made by NAM in the Sub-group on Sanctions of the Open-Ended Working Group of the General Assembly on an Agenda for Peace. They called upon the Coordinating Bureau to pursue efforts to have those proposals implemented.
  44. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underscored the need to operationalise Article 50 of the Charter, particularly by establishing a mechanism, including a Fund, to provide relief to third countries affected by UN sanctions.
  45. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation further expressed concern over the increasing use of the term "preventive action" in the absence of an agreed definition or understanding of this term, as well as inadequate clarification of its implications on UN activities and resources. They urged that the General Assembly develop guidelines for the UN on this matter.
  46. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that without prejudice to the competence of the other principal organs of the UN respective roles in Post-Conflict Peace Building (PCPB) activities, the General Assembly must have the key role in the formulation of PCPB activities. In this regard, they recognized as well the importance of the concerted actions of international agencies to support actively national programs for reconstruction and rehabilitation, including the promotion of a culture of peace which paves the way for the achievement of economic and social development.

  47. STRENGTHENING, RESTRUCTURING, REVITALIZATION AND DEMOCRATIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
     
     

  48. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted the decisions adopted by the General Assembly with regards to the reform proposals presented by the Secretary General in his report: "Renewing the United Nations: A Program for Reform". They underscored the constructive and flexible attitude shown by the members of the Non-Aligned Movement while in the process of discussion of the above-mentioned decisions.
  49. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized the importance of reinforcing the United Nations for the challenges of the new millennium and in this context they stressed the need to keep under close intergovernmental oversight and review the implementation of the decisions adopted by the General Assembly in its resolutions 52/12 A and B with regards to the reform proposals presented by the Secretary General in his report, "Renewing the United Nations: A Program for Reform", as well as a continuous assessment of their implications. While implementing those decisions, they also stressed the need to take into account the views expressed by Member States during the process of consideration of those decisions, including those subjects and aspects where the overwhelming majority coincided in formulating precise and clear guidelines.
  50. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that the success of reforms could only be judged by real improvements in functioning to the UN and its ability to make a felt impact on the lives of all people, especially the citizens of the developing countries. They stressed that any further efforts regarding United Nations reform, should focus on strengthening the role of the Organization in the promotion of development. In this regard, they stressed that in conjunction with the Group of 77, they welcomed the establishment of a post of Deputy Secretary General with the duty of striving for a "more visible and distinguished role of the United Nations in the economic and social spheres, including the on-going efforts to re-enforce the work of the United Nations as a main centre for politics of development, as well as for assistance for development.
  51. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that the reform process should preserve the centrality and sanctity of the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and General Assembly mandates. The process should also enable the organization to meet the challenges of contemporary times. In this regard, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation again reiterated the importance of the General Assembly as the main elaborative and decision-making organ of the United Nations in which all member states equally participate. They stressed that any reform proposals challenging the importance of the General Assembly would be unacceptable.
  52. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their concern expressed at the XIIth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, at the weakening of the role and functioning of the General Assembly, the principal organ of the United Nations in which all member states are represented, and called for the restoration of the balance between its role and that of the Security Council, as mandated in the UN Charter. In this context, the due accountability of the Security Council to the General Assembly should be encouraged. The Ministers also noted the conclusion of work of the Open-ended Working Group on the Strengthening of the UN System, and called for the full implementation of the recommendations as contained in the annex to General Assembly resolution 51/241.
  53. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that the proposals of the Secretary General requiring further consideration by the General Assembly should be discussed through an open and transparent procedure, and not be subjected to any imposed time-fame. In this regard, all delegations should have the opportunity to participate effectively in discussions and negotiations on all proposals.
  54. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation discussed the proposal of the Secretary-General regarding time limits for new initiatives and/or future mandates of the United Nations and, in this regard, stressed the urgent need for the General Assembly to undertake a thorough and continuing examination and assessment of the proposal in all its aspects, notably its impact on the programmes and activities of the Organization, fully taking into account its wide ranging scope and diversity, as well as the existing mechanisms of evaluation. They instructed the members of the Movement to be vigilant on this proposal and examine it in depth and on a continuous basis during the General Assembly's consideration of this matter. In this context, the Ministers reiterated that the medium-term plan constitute the principal policy directive of the United Nations and reaffirmed in this regard, General Assembly resolution 41/213.
  55. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also highlighted the urgent need to further reactivate existing mechanisms within NAM in order to build and strengthen developing countries' position in all pending issues on reform and called upon their Permanent Missions in New York to work actively in this regard.
  56. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reviewed the institutional changes introduced in the United Nations relating to humanitarian assistance, including the transfer to UNDP of the coordination of activities related to natural disaster mitigation, relief and preparedness. They welcomed the establishment of the post of the UN Humanitarian Assistance Coordinator, who would continue to coordinate emergency relief and assistance to affected countries. The Ministers stressed that humanitarian assistance should be neutral and impartial, be provided at the request of the country concerned, and fully respect its territorial integrity and sovereignty. They hoped that the separate "Humanitarian Affairs segment" of ECOSOC would provide the necessary profile to this issue and be useful in promoting enhanced coordination of humanitarian assistance.
  57. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation comprehensively reviewed discussions on the reform and restructuring of the Security Council, in the light of the position papers adopted by the Movement on 13 February 1995, 20 May 1996, the NAM negotiating paper dated 11 March, 1997, the decisions of the Cartagena Summit, the Twelfth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, 7-8 April 1997, and those adopted on this matter at the Ministerial Meeting in New York on 25 September 1997.
  58. In conformity with the New Delhi Declaration regarding the necessity to attain general agreement, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed their determination that any resolution with Charter amendment implications must be adopted by two thirds majority of the United Nations membership referred to in Article 108 of the Charter.
  59. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled that discussions in the Open-Ended Working Group on the Question of Equitable Representation and Increase in the Membership of the Security Council and other matters related to the Security Council have shown that while a convergence of views has emerged on a number of issues, important differences still exist on many others. They noted that the Open-Ended Working Group has resumed its discussions and underlined the necessity of the Movement maintaining its unity and solidarity on this critical issue. They reaffirmed that the Movement should, in the ensuing negotiations, continue to pursue directives given by the Cartagena Summit and contained in the Movement's position papers. The Movement would be guided by the following considerations in approaching the issue of Security Council reform in discussions at the UN: .
    1. both reform and expansion of the Security Council should be considered as integral parts of a common package, taking into account the principle of sovereign equality of states and equitable geographical distribution, as well as the need for transparency, accountability and democratization in the working methods and procedures of the Security Council, including its decision-making process;
    2. The Non-Aligned Countries are grossly under-represented in the Council. This under-representation should, therefore, be corrected by enlargement of the Security Council which should enhance the credibility of the Council, to reflect the universal character of the world body, and to correct existing imbalances in the composition of the Security Council in a comprehensive manner;
    3. The extent, nature and modalities of the expansion of the Security Council should be determined on the basis of the principles of equitable geographical distribution and sovereign equality of states. There shall be no partial or selective expansion or enlargement of the membership of the Security Council to the detriment of the developing countries. Attempts to exclude NAM from any enlargement in the membership of the Council would be unacceptable to the Movement;
    4. Increase the membership of the Security Council by not less than 11 based on the principles of equitable geographical distribution and sovereign equality of States;
    5. The negotiation process should be truly democratic and transparent, and negotiations on all aspects should be held, in all cases in an open-ended setting.
    Note: paragraphs number 56 to 60 in document CB/MM-Doc.4-Rev.4 were deleted since they were sub-paragraphs of paragraph 55.
  60. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that efforts at restructuring the Security Council shall not be subject to any imposed time-frame.

  61. While recognizing the importance of treating this issue as a matter of urgent attention, no effort should be spared to decide this issue before general agreement is reached.
  62. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the NAM proposal that if there is no agreement on other categories of membership, expansion should take place only, for the time being, in the non-permanent category.
  63. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the NAM proposal that the veto should be curtailed with a view to its elimination and that the Charter should be amended so that, as a first step, the veto power should only apply to actions taken under Chapter VII of the Charter.
  64. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the need for a coherent and coordinated approach by the Movement in the ensuing discussions in the Open-Ended Working Group. Mindful of the importance of reaching general agreement, as reflected, inter alia, in UNGA resolution 48/26, they called for fuller discussions of various proposals submitted to the Working Group.
  65. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the importance of enhancing the transparency of the Security Council through the improvement of its working methods and its decision-making process. They called on the Open-Ended Working Group to agree on and the General Assembly to recommend specific and substantive measures to be implemented by the Security Council based on the measures proposed in the NAM negotiating paper on Cluster II issues. They also urged the Security Council to institutionalize such measures, and stressed that a commitment to institutionalize them should be an element of a package agreement on the reform of the Security Council.
  66. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled UNGA Resolution 51/193 and in this regard called for a significant improvement in the annual report of the Security Council of the General Assembly. They also urged the Security Council to provide, when necessary, special reports to the Geneva Assembly in accordance with Articles 15 and 24 of the UN Charter.
  67. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their satisfaction with the active participation in and contribution to the work of the Open-ended Working Groups on UN reform by the Non-Aligned Countries and encouraged them to continue to promote NAM positions in this and other fora.
  68. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underscored the intergovernmental character of the General Assembly and its subsidiary bodies. Efforts to strengthen the contribution of Non Governmental Organizations to the work of the United Nations and its bodies should be through existing consultative arrangements of ECOSOC.

  69. FINANCIAL SITUATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
     
     

  70. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern on the deteriorating financial situation of the Organization and reiterated that the primary cause of the financial crisis continues to be the failure on the part of certain developed countries to discharge fully, without conditions and on time their assessed contribution to the Regular Budget and peacekeeping operations.
  71. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation again urged all countries in arrears to settle their outstanding dues without further delay and to pay their future assessments in full, on time, and without imposing preconditions.
  72. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also expressed their concern at the continued cross-borrowing from the peacekeeping fund to the regular budget resulting in the delay of reimbursement to the troop and contingent owned-equipment-providing countries, specially the Non-Aligned and other developing countries. They strongly urged all Member States to fulfil their legal obligations under the Charter to bring an end to this extraordinary practice. They exhorted all Countries in arrears to pay their contributions as soon as possible to avoid the prolongation of this practice.
  73. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that the expenses of peace-keeping operations are expenses of the United Nations to be borne by Member States in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Charter, as well as the existing special scale of assessments established by General Assembly resolution 1874 (S-IV) of June 1963 and 3101 (XXVIII) of 11 December 1973 which take into account the special responsibilities of the five permanent members of the Security Council as well as other economic considerations. These contributions must therefore be paid in full, on time and without conditions. They further stressed that the principles and guidelines for the sharing of the costs of peacekeeping operations contained in the two resolutions 1874 (S-IV) and 3101 (XXVIII) must be institutionalized and adopted on a permanent basis.
  74. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the importance of maintaining the principle of capacity to pay as a fundamental criteria in the apportionment of the expenses of the Organization. They noted with interest that the scale of assessments for the period 1998-2000 took into consideration the economic conditions of the developing countries. They reiterated as unacceptable any unilateral attempt at modifying the scale of assessment through conditionalities contrary to the principles of the United Nations. It was emphasized that reduction in the ceiling of the scale of assessments, in the regular budget, will distort the principle of capacity to pay and is thus unacceptable.
  75. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation, while recalling the General Assembly resolutions on the programme budget for the biennium 1998-99, emphasized the need for having adequate resources in order to fully implement all mandated activities and programmes.
  76. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern at the initiative to arbitrarily categorize the various programs and activities of the United Nations as non-programs costs which is likely to adversely affect the ability of the Organization to perform its mandated programs and activities. Noting that all UN activities are under programme, they urged the Secretary-General not to undertake any such review without satisfying the technical questions raised by various member states and other UN bodies.
  77. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that all mandated activities and programmes should be carried out by international civil servants in accordance with Articles 100 and 101 of the UN Charter. They welcomed the provisions regarding the phasing out of gratis personnel as contained in GA resolutions 51/243, 52/12B and 52/220. They emphasized that the gratis personnel should be phased out expeditiously in accordance with the resolution 51/243.
  78. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized the importance of the GA Resolution 52/226 and expressed their concern at the negligible share of non-aligned and other developing countries in the UN procurement. They also emphasized that the UN procurement should be on as wide a geographical basis as possible, with preferential treatment to the developing countries in case of equally qualified vendors. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation further underlined that the UN Suppliers Roster should be representative of the membership of the Organization. In awarding procurement contracts, preference should be given to Member States that have fulfilled their financial obligations to the UN.

  79. REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
     
     

  80. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation highlighted the important role that regional arrangements and agencies, composed of Non-Aligned and other developing countries, can play in the promotion of regional peace and security, economic cooperation and economic and social development.
  81. While reaffirming that the primary responsibility for international peace and security rests with the United Nations, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that the role of regional arrangements or agencies, in that regard, should not in any way substitute the role of the United Nations, or circumvent the full application of the guiding principles of the United Nations and international law.
  82. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that a process of consultations, cooperation and coordination between the UN and regional arrangements or agencies, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter, as well as on their mandates, scope and composition, is useful and can contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security.
  83. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stated that regional arrangements on economic cooperation can contribute to development and to the growth of the world economy through, inter alia, the promotion of trade, investments and technology transfer. They stressed the need for a firm commitment to enhance economic cooperation among developing countries within the framework of an open, multilateral, equitable and non-discriminatory trading system.

  84. THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION AND DECOLONIZATION
     
     

  85. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated the continued validity of the fundamental right of all peoples to self-determination the exercise of which, in the case of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, is essential to ensure the eradication of all these situations and to guarantee universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They strongly condemned ongoing brutal suppression of the legitimate aspirations for self-determination of peoples under colonial, alien domination and foreign occupation in various regions of the world.
  86. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called for the full implementation of relevant UNESCO resolutions and decisions relating to the restitution of cultural property of peoples formerly under colonial rule and urged the payment of a applicable compensation.
  87. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the right of all peoples which had suffered under the yoke of colonialism to take all necessary measures to seek fair compensation for the damages and the human and material losses they suffered as a consequence of colonialism. They reconfirmed the statement contained in the final communique of the 9th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement that colonial countries must shoulder their consequences of their occupation of the developing countries.
  88. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation observed with satisfaction the emergence into sovereign statehood and independence of peoples once under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation. They reaffirmed the inalienable right of peoples of non-self-governing territories to self-determination and independence in accordance with UNGA resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 regardless of the territory's size, geographical location, population and limited natural resources. They renewed their commitment to hasten the complete elimination of colonialism and supported the affective implementation of the Plan of Action of the Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. In this respect, the principle of self-determination with respect to the remaining territories within the framework of the Program of Action should be implemented in accordance with the wishes of the people consistent with UNGA resolutions and the Charter of the United Nations.
  89. In the context of the implementation of UNGA resolution 1514 (XV), the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
  90. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled that 1998 will mark the one-hundred anniversary of the occupation of the territory of Puerto Rico by a foreign power, and reaffirmed the right of the people of Puerto Rico to their self-determination and independence on the basis of resolution 1514 (XV) of the UN General Assembly. They requested the Committee of 24 of the U.N. to consider the issue during its 1998 session. They took note of the ongoing legislative process at the United States Senate and the adoption in the U.S. House of Representatives of the so-called Young amendment with regard to the political status of Puerto Rico and stressed that any self-determination exercise regarding the future political status of the people cf Puerto Rico should be in accordance with the resolutions adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
  91. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their strong support for the Committee of 24 and expressed their desire that in accordance with the U.N. reform process,. the said body would continue to receive both the adequate human and financial resources aimed at actively pursuing its work in order to determine the interests of the peoples of non-self-governing territories regarding their future political status, for which a number of actions, such as visiting missions and regional seminaries, and totally adequate and necessary. For this purpose, they once again called upon the Administering Powers to grant their full support to the activities of the Committee.

  92. MERCENARIES
     
     

  93. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation condemned the practice of recruiting, financing, training, transit, use or supporting mercenaries as a violation of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. They reiterated their belief that mercenarism, in all its forms, constitutes an obstacle to peace and exercise of sovereignty by Non-Aligned countries. This endangers the national security of States, especially small States, as well as the safety and stability of multi-ethnic States and impede the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination. They therefore urged adherence to the provisions of resolution 491/50 of UNGA, especially its call on States to consider the possibility of signing and ratifying the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of mercenaries and reaffirmed resolution 52/112 of the United Nations General Assembly.
  94. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern that various resolutions and conventions of the United Nations and regional organizations relating to mercenarism have not been implemented in full. To this end, they implored all countries to implement these unconditionally.

  95. UNITED NATIONS PEACE KEEPlNG OPERATIONS
     
     

  96. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the guiding principles regarding peacekeeping operations contained in the Final Document adopted by the XI Ministerial Conference in Cairo on the 3rd June 1994.
  97. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the adoption of GA resolution 51/218E on uniform and standardized rates for the reimbursement of death and disability sustained by troops serving in UN peacekeeping operations.
  98. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that funding of UN peace-keeping operations through voluntary contributions should not influence UN Security Council decisions to establish peace-keeping operations or affect their mandate. They stressed the need for regular and institutionalized consultations between troop contributing countries and the Security Council. They also stressed the need to differentiate between peace-keeping operations and humanitarian assistance.
  99. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation, while fully appreciative of the important role played by the UN Special Committee on Peace-Keeping operations and welcoming its enlargement, stressed that it is the competent forum with the mandate to comprehensively review the whole question of peace-keeping operations in all their aspects.
  100. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their concern over the staffing structure of the Department of Peace-Keeping Operations of the UN Secretariat whereby NAM member states were insufficiently represented. They took note of the assurance by the UN Secretary General that most of the loaned personnel in the department will be phased out by the end of December 1998 and the residual loaned personnel will be phased out in 1999 as contained in UN document A52/710. However, they reconfirmed NAM's belief that the gratis personnel in the DPKO could be phased out before this deadline also.
  101. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation, while maintaining their view that every effort should be made to accelerate this process, reaffirmed their call to the UN Secretary-General in order that the recruitment and assignment of personnel for the posts previously occupied by loaned personnel be consistent with the requirements of Articles 100 and 101 of the UN Charter. They particularly underscored the importance of recruiting staff on as guided on geographical basis as possible.
  102. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed satisfaction at the work of the NAM Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations, chaired by Thailand, contributing to enhancing the coordination of the Non-Aligned delegations on this important issue.
  103. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed concern about the initiative by a few non-NAM countries to establish their own Standby High Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG), which is not part of the UN Standby Arrangements System. In this regard, they reaffirmed that the UN Standby Arrangements System is a key to the increased effectiveness and rapid deployment of UN Peacekeeping operations. They also reaffirmed that the planning and deployment of UN peacekeeping operations should be within the context of the UN Standby Arrangements System, which is open to all Member States. They took note of the UN Secretariat's affirmation that the Standby Arrangement System is based on contributions from individual member states and that there is no UN peacekeeping brigade.
  104. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed deep concern over the continued delays in their reimbursement of troop costs and a contingent-owned equipment leases. These delays in reimbursement cause hardship to all troop and equipment - contributing countries, specifically the NAM countries, and adversely affect their capacity and possibly the will to participate in peace-keeping operations.
  105. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalling the Secretary-General's proposals for procurement reform as outlined in A/52/534, emphasized the critical importance of timely, efficient, transparent and cost effective procurement of goods and services in support of peacemaking operations. In this regard, they reiterated the need to ensure greater UN procurement from developing countries, particularly the NAM countries.

  106. DISARMAMENT AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
     
     

  107. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that with the end of the Cold War, there is no justification for the maintenance of nuclear arsenals, or concepts of international security based on promoting and developing military alliances and policies of nuclear deterrence. They noted and welcomed the various international initiatives which stress that with the end of the cold war the opportunity now exists for the international community to pursue nuclear disarmament as a matter of the highest priority. They also noted that the present situation whereby nuclear-weapon states insist that nuclear weapons provide unique security benefits, and yet monopolize the right to own them, is highly discriminatory, unstable and cannot be sustained. These weapons continued to represent a threat to the survival of the mankind. They recalled that the Cartagena Summit had called for the adoption of an action plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework. They once again called upon the international community to join them in negotiating and implementing universal, non discriminatory disarmament measures and mutually agreed confidence- building measures.
  108. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their call on the Conference on Disarmament to establish, as the highest priority, an ad hoc committee to start in 1998 negotiations on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time, including a Nuclear Weapons Convention. The Conference on Disarmament shall take into consideration all relevant views and proposals, regarding this issue that have been submitted to it. They also insisted on the need to conclude a universal and legally binding multilateral agreement committing all States to the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. In this context they regretted that some nuclear weapons states had adopted inflexible postures which prevented the Conference on Disarmament from commencing these negotiations.
  109. In this connection, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that a number of Non-Aligned Movement countries had taken collective initiatives at the United Nations General Assembly sessions to underscore the need for urgent action in the field of nuclear disarmament, as mandated by the Cartagena Summit. They recognized all of the useful proposals put forward by members of Non-Aligned Movement in the Conference on Disarmament on the establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee on nuclear disarmament including the useful work done by Non-Aligned Movement members of the Conference on Disarmament in developing a Program of Action for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons within a time-bound framework.
  110. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed concern over the failure of nuclear weapon States to demonstrate a genuine commitment with regard to complete nuclear disarmament, and to provide universal, unconditional, and legally binding negative security assurances to all non-nuclear weapon States, and urged the nuclear weapon States to immediately commence and conclude without delay negotiations on these assurances.
  111. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted the establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee on Effective international arrangement to assure non-nuclear weapons States against the use or the threat of use of nuclear weapons in the Conference on Disarmament to negotiate universal, unconditional and legally binding assurances to all non-nuclear weapon States.
  112. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice that there "exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control". In this connection, they reiterated their call upon all the States to immediately fulfil that obligation by commencing multilateral negotiations leading to an early conclusion of a nuclear weapons convention prohibiting the development, production, testing, deployment, stockpiling, transfer, threat or use of threat of nuclear weapons and providing for their elimination.
  113. The Ministers and Heads of Delegations noted with concern that undue restrictions on export to developing countries of material, equipment and technology, for peaceful purposes persist. They emphasized that proliferation concerns should be addressed through multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive and non-discriminatory agreements. Non-proliferation control arrangements should be transparent and open to participation by all States and should ensure that they do not impose restrictions on access to material, equipment and technology for peaceful purposes required by developing countries for their continued development. In this regard they also expressed their strong rejection of attempts by any member States to use the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) technical cooperation as a tool for political, purposes in violation of the IAEA's Statute.
  114. Consistent with the decisions taken by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference, of Parties to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation of States parties to the NPT called upon all States, particularly the nuclear weapon States, to fulfil their commitments, particularly those related to Article VI of the Treaty. They also emphasized the need to ensure and facilitate the exercise of the inalienable right of all States to develop, produce and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination under IAEA safeguards. Undertakings to facilitate participation in the fullest possible exchange of equipment, material and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy should be fully implemented.
  115. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation of States parties to the NPT took note with regret at the outcome of the deliberations of the Second Preparatory Committee held in Geneva from 27 April to 8 May, 1998. They further regretted that the Committee could not achieve a substantive result due to the insistence of one delegation to support the nuclear policies of a non party to the NPT. They called upon the Preparatory Committees up to and including the 2000 Review Conference of the NPT to engage immediately in substantive work for the meaningful implementation of the obligations under the Treaty and the commitments in the 1995 Principles and Objectives document, and the resolutions on Middle East. They further called upon the Preparatory Committee to make specific time available at its future sessions to deliberate on the practical steps for systematic and progressive efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons, and for the 2000 NPT Review Conference to establish a subsidiary body to its Main Committee to deliberate on the practical steps for systematic and progressive efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons.
  116. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the inviolability of peaceful nuclear activities and that any attack or threat of attack against peaceful nuclear facilities - operational or under construction - poses a great danger to human beings and the environment, and constitutes a grave violation of international law, principles and purposes of the UN Charter and regulations of the IAEA. They recognized the need for a comprehensive multilaterally negotiated instrument, prohibiting attacks, or threat of attacks on nuclear facilities devoted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
  117. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation of the States parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention welcomed the increasing number of ratifications of the Convention and invited the declared possessors of chemical weapons and other States who have still not ratified it to do so as soon as possible with the view to its universality. They also underlined the urgency of satisfactorily resolving the unresolved issues in the framework of the Organization of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) with a view to paving the ground for the effective, full and non-Discriminatory implementation of the Convention. In this context, they reiterated their call on the developed countries to promote international cooperation through the transfer of technology, material and equipment for peaceful purposes in the chemical field and the removal of all and any discriminatory restrictions that are contrary to the letter and spirit of the Convention.
  118. While asserting that the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention inherently precludes the use of biological weapons, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated the decision by the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Review Conference that the use by the States parties, in any way and under any circumstances, of microbial or other biological agents or toxins, that is not consistent with prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes, is effectively a violation of Article I of the Convention. In this connection they noted that the Islamic Republic of Iran has formally presented a proposal to amend Article I of the Convention to include the prohibition of use of biological weapons and urged an early reply from the States parties to the inquiries by the depositories on this proposal. The Ministers noted the progress achieved so far negotiating a Protocol to strengthen the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and reaffirmed the decision of the Fourth Review Conference urging the conclusion of the negotiations by the Ad Hoc group as soon as possible before the commencement of the Fifth Review Conference and for it to submit its report, which shall be adopted by consensus, to the States parties, to be considered at a Special Conference. Therefore, artificial deadlines should be avoided. They also expressed their concern at any attempts to reduce the scope and importance of issues related to Article X of the Convention. Ensured access for peaceful purposes to the relevant materials, equipment and technology is essential to safeguard the economic interests of developing countries. Substantive progress in strengthening the application and full operationalisation of Article X is thus crucial for the conclusion of a universally acceptable and legally binding instrument designed to strengthen the Convention.
  119. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed particular concern over the illicit transfer and circulation of small arms and light weapons and their accumulation and proliferation in many countries, which constituted a serious threat to the population and to national and regional security and were a factor contributing to the destabilization of States. They urged States to take steps to deal effectively, through administrative and legislative means, with the increasing problem of illicit transfer of small arms and light weapons which exacerbate tensions leading to strife, conflict and terrorism, and impact negatively on the socio-economic development of affected countries. In this regard, they welcomed the adoption of guidelines in 1996 for international arms transfers in the context of General Assembly resolution 46/36H of 6 September 1991 by the United Nations Disarmament Commission. Moreover, they welcomed the initiative by His Excellency Alpha Oumar Konare, President of the Republic of Mali, on the establishment of a moratorium on the production, transfer and illicit traffic of light arms in West Africa, adopted by member States of ECOWAS within the framework of ongoing discussions and referring to the creation of a mechanism to prevent, handle and rule on conflicts in the sub-region.
  120. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the importance of transparency in armaments, in view of the dangerous consequences to the international peace and security that the development, production and stockpiling of weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons, and the excessive production of conventional arms have. They encouraged States, taking into account the legitimate requirement of States for self-defense and the specific characteristics of each region, to consider appropriate initiatives at multilateral, regional and national levels to promote transparency in armaments as an important element for building confidence and security.
  121. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted the opening for signature in Ottawa during December 1997 of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction. They emphasized that elimination of landmines should take into account the legitimate national security concern of States as well as their legitimate rights to use appropriate measures for self-defense.
  122. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called on States to become parties to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW) and the Protocols thereto, and called upon States parties to the CCW to express their consent to be bound to its Amended Protocol II on Landmines and Protocol IV on Blinding Laser Weapons with a view to their entry into force as soon as possible.
  123. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Heads of Delegation called upon the international community to provide the necessary assistance to landmine clearance operations as well as to the rehabilitation of the victims in the landmine affected countries. They further called for international assistance to ensure full access of affected countries to material, equipment, technology and financial resources for mine clearance. The Ministers also called for continued humanitarian assistance for victims of landmines.
  124. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Heads of Delegation expressed concern about the residue of the Second World War, particularly in the form of landmines which cause human and material damage and obstruct development plans in some Non-Aligned countries. They called on the States responsible for laying the mines outside their territories to assume responsibility for the land mines, to cooperate with the affected countries, to provide the necessary information, maps and technical assistance for their clearance, to contribute towards defrayal of the costs of clearance and provide compensation for any ensuing losses.
  125. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation considered the establishment of Nuclear Weapons Free Zones (NWFZs) as a positive step towards attaining the objective of global nuclear disarmament. They urged States to conclude agreements with a view to creating nuclear-weapon-free zones in regions where they do not exist, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of SSOD-1. In this context, they welcomed the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones established by the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation considered the question of the establishment of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones in other parts of the world and agreed that this should be on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned and in conformity with the provisions of the Final Document of SSOD-1. The Ministers welcomed the efforts of Mongolia to institutionalize its status as a single State nuclear-weapon-free zone.
  126. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their support for the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of all weapons of mass destruction. To this end, they reaffirmed the need for the speedy establishment of a nuclear-weapons-free zone in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council resolutions 487 (1981) and 687 (1991) and the relevant General Assembly resolutions adopted by consensus. They called upon all parties concerned to take urgent and practical steps towards the establishment of such a zone and, pending its establishment, they called on Israel, the only country in the region that has not joined the NPT nor declared its intention to do so, to renounce possession of nuclear weapons, to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) without delay, and to place promptly all its nuclear facilities under full-scope IAEA safeguards. They expressed great concern over the acquisition of nuclear capability by Israel which poses a serious and continuing threat to the security of neighbouring and other States and they condemned Israel for continuing to develop and stockpile nuclear arsenals. They are of the view that stability cannot be achieved in a region where massive imbalances in military capabilities are maintained particularly through the possession of nuclear weapons which allow one party to threaten its neighbours and the region. They further welcomed the initiative by H.E. Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, on the establishment of a zone free from weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. They stressed that necessary steps should be taken in different international fora for the establishment of this zone. They also called for the total and complete prohibition of the transfer of all nuclear-related equipment, information, material and facilities, resources or devices and the extension of assistance in the nuclear related scientific or technological fields to Israel.
  127. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern over the Israeli-Turkish military alliance as well as the naval manoeuvres carried out in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and the dangers that such manoeuvres pose to the security of the region.
  128. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stated that in order to enhance international security and stability, all States parties to non-proliferation, arms limitations and disarmament treaties should comply with and implement all provisions of such treaties. They emphasized that questions of non-compliance by States Parties should be resolved in a manner consistent with such treaties. They further emphasized that any deviation from the role envisaged for the Security Council under the United Nations Charter or in certain circumstances under relevant provisions of multilateral treaties on non-proliferation, arms limitation and disarmament would undermine the provisions of these treaties and conventions, including the inherent mechanisms for securing redress of violations of their provisions. Such deviations would also call into question the value of painstaking multilateral negotiations on disarmament and arms control treaties in the Conference on Disarmament. They underlined that circumventing or undermining the provisions of existing treaties will seriously prejudice the role of the Conference.
  129. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that global and regional approaches to disarmament are complementary and could be pursued simultaneously. They urged States in various regions of the world to negotiate agreements to promote greater balance in conventional armaments and restraint in the production and acquisition of conventional arms and, where necessary, for their progressive and balanced reduction, with a view to enhancing international and regional peace and security. They stressed that the peaceful resolution of regional and inter-State disputes is essential for the creation of conditions which would enable States to divert their resources from armaments to economic growth and development. Regional disarmament initiatives, to be practical, needed to take into account the special characteristics of each region and enhance the security of every State of the region concerned. The question of the accumulation of conventional weapons beyond the legitimate requirements of the States for self-defense should also be addressed, taking into account the special characteristics of each region.
  130. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation, took note of the relevant paragraphs of the United Nation General Assembly Resolutions 52/12A & B on international peace, security and disarmament, and insisted on the need that its implementation respects fully the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-intervention on the internal affairs of States.
  131. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegations acknowledged that under the reform process, it was decided to re-establish at the UN Secretariat the Department on Disarmament headed by an Under Secretary General from a Non-Aligned country. They stressed their hope that this will contribute to greater disarmament efforts towards achieving general and complete disarmament in conformity with priorities set out in SSOD I and relevant provisions of General Assembly resolution 52/220.
  132. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed once again their support for the convening of the Fourth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament. They welcomed the adoption by the General Assembly, by consensus, of the resolution on the Convening of the IV Special Session of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament. They took note of the deliberations on the matter held by the United Nations Disarmament Commission and instructed the Coordinating Bureau to entrust the Non-Aligned Movement Working Group on Disarmament with the task of pursuing further the holding of the Fourth Special Session and the related coordination during the preparatory process. In this context, they reaffirmed the need for SSOD IV to review and assess the implementation of SSOD I.
  133. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the decision adopted by the General Assembly on maintaining and revitalizing the three Regional Centers for Peace and Disarmament in Nepal, Pew and Togo.

  134. INDIAN OCEAN
     
     

  135. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation re-affirmed the validity of the objectives of the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. They reaffirmed the importance of international co-operation to ensure peace, security and stability in the Indian Ocean region. They noted that greater efforts and more time were required to facilitate a focused discussion on practical measures to ensure conditions of peace, security and stability in the region. They also noted that in the light of resolution 52/44 of the United Nations General Assembly, the Chairman of the Ad-Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean will continue his informal consultations on the future work of the Committee.

  136. TERRORISM
     
     

  137. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed with satisfaction the adoption by the General Assembly of the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (UNGA Resolution 49/60) and the Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings adopted at the 52nd session of the UN General Assembly and urged that they be implemented. They reiterated their condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, as they have adverse consequences, inter alia, on the economic and social development of States. They declared that terrorism also affects the stability of nations and the very basis of societies, especially pluralistic societies. They also called for the urgent conclusion and the effective implementation of a comprehensive international convention for combating terrorism.
  138. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation further welcomed the recent adoption by the Member of the League of Arab States in Cairo of the Convention on Combating Terrorism as well as the Tehran OIC Summit Resolution to conclude an OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism and the strengthened efforts therein.
  139. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation further urged all States to cooperate to enhance international cooperation in the fight against terrorism, wherever, by whomever, against whomever it occurs, at the national, regional and international levels, and to observe and implement the relevant international and bilateral instruments, taking into account the Final Document of the UN Conference on the Prevention of Crime held in Cairo in 1995.
  140. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation affirmed that criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for whatever purposes are, in any circumstance, unjustifiable, whatever the considerations or factors that may be invoked to justify them.
  141. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that all States are under the obligation pursuant to the purposes and principles and other provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and other relevant international instruments, codes of conduct and other rules of international law to refrain from organizing, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in the territories of other States or acquiescing in or encouraging activities within the territories directed towards the commission of such acts, including allowing the use of national territories and territories under their jurisdiction for planning and training for that purpose. They solemnly reaffirmed their unequivocal condemnation of any political, diplomatic, moral or material support to terrorism.
  142. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the Movement's principled position under the international law on the legitimacy of struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for national liberation and self-determination which did not constitute terrorism.
  143. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called once again for the endorsement in principle of the call for the definition of terrorism to differentiate it from the legitimate struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, for self-determination and national liberation.
  144. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the need to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations regardless of race, religion or nationality of the victims or perpetrators of terrorism.
  145. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also emphasized that the taking of hostages, wherever and by whoever committed, constitutes a serious obstacle to the full enjoyment of all human rights and is, under any circumstances, unjustifiable. They therefore called upon States to take all necessary measures to prevent, combat and punish acts of hostage taking, including strengthening international cooperation in this field.
  146. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled paragraph 11 of the Final Document of the XII NAM Ministerial Meeting and directed that the Movement should promote jointly its collective position on terrorism.

  147. INTERNATIONAL LAW
     
     

  148. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their satisfaction with the revitalization of the Non-Aligned Working Group on legal issues at the UN Headquarters in New York, chaired by Zimbabwe, which should contribute to upgrade the work and level of coordination of the Non-Aligned delegations an these important issues.
  149. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined that with the conclusion of the cold war, many new areas of concern have emerged which warrant a renewal of the commitment of the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law as well as a fuller utilization of the mechanism and means for the pacific settlement of disputes, as envisaged in the United Nations Charter.
  150. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation agreed that peace and harmony among nations and peoples require States to respect and promote the rule of law. For this reason, they committed themselves to conduct their external affairs based upon the obligations of international law. They agreed that only an international society governed by law could assure peace and security for all its members.
  151. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that further progress is necessary to achieve full respect for international law and the international Court of Justice and, inter alia, for promoting the peaceful settlement of disputes and a system of international criminal justice with respect to crimes against humanity as well as other international offences. The Charter refers to the International Court of Justice as the Organization's principal judicial organ. The Security Council should make greater using of the World Court as a source of advisory opinions, and in controversial instances, use the World Court as a source of interpreting relevant international law and consider decisions to review by the World Court.
  152. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized the significance of the Diplomatic Conference on the establishment of an International Criminal Court to be held in Rome, from 15 June to 17 July 1998 and, in this respect, encouraged the active participation of the members of NAM in the Rome Conference and emphasized the need for coordination among member States prior to and during the Conference, in order to harmonize, as far as is possible, the position of the Members of the Movement inspired by NAM values and principles.
  153. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called on all States to cooperate with the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and to apprehend and return for trial those who committed the crime of genocide in Rwanda to the country where the crime was committed.
  154. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also stressed the importance of cooperation and compliance with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and reiterated that individual responsibility for the perpetration of crimes against humanity and other serious violations of humanitarian law should be established.
  155. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed their serious concern on the intention of a group of States to unilaterally re-interpret or re-draft the existing legal instruments in accordance with their own views and interests. They emphasized that the integrity of legal instruments adopted by Member States must be maintained. They also expressed their deep concern on the most recent experiences in the elections of members of several Treaty Bodies, which resulted in a loss of seats of experts from Non-Aligned countries, which resulted in an unbalanced representation of all regions at these bodies. The Ministers called upon the Non-Aligned countries that are Parties of the relevant legal treaties to work together in order to redress this anomaly, and underline the need for a more active solidarity and unity among the Non-Aligned countries by supporting the candidatures of experts from the Non-Aligned countries.
  156. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation condemned the continued unilateral application, by certain powers, of coercive economic and other measures including the enactment of extra-territorial laws, against a number of developing countries, with a view to preventing these countries from exercising their right to decide, by their own free will, their own political, economic and social systems. They called on all countries not to recognize the unilateral extra-territorial laws enacted by certain countries which impose sanctions on other states and foreign companies and individuals. They reaffirmed that such legislations contradict norms of international law and run counter to the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
  157. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called upon all States to refrain from adopting or implementing extra-territorial or unilateral measures of coercion as means of exerting pressure on Non-Aligned and other developing countries. They noted that measures such as Helms-Burton, D'Amato-Kennedy Acts and other laws recently enacted related to other issues, constitute violations of international law and the Charter of the United Nations, and called upon the international community to take effective action in order to arrest this trend.
  158. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation rejected all attempts to introduce new conceptions of International Law geared at internationalizing the essential elements contained in extra-territorial laws through multilateral agreements.
  159. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed their rejection of evaluations, certifications and other coercive unilateral measures as a means of exerting pressure on Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries. In this context they reiterated their view that coercive unilateral measures and legislation are contrary to international law, the United Nations Charter and the norms and principles governing peaceful relations among states and furthermore, they also rejected the present trend geared at their strengthening and expansion. They expressed, once again, their concern over the extra-territorial nature of those measures which, in addition, threatens the sovereignty of States. They called upon States applying unilateral coercive measures to put an immediate end to those measures.

  160. LAW OF THE SEA
     
     

  161. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the establishment of the International Tribunal of the Law of the Sea and also the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf and noted that the International Seabed Authority is now operational. They urged again all countries, and especially the developed countries that have not yet done so, to ratify the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the Convention and the agreement for the implementation of the provisions of the Convention relating to the conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks at the earliest. They reaffirmed that the Convention and the Agreement represent significant achievements of the international community through multilateral efforts in creating a legal order for the seas and oceans which will inter alia, facilitate international communications, promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living sources as well as the protection and preservation of the marine environment.

  162. PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
     
     

  163. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized the need for a renewal of commitment by the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the UN Charter and international law as well as the means envisaged in the UN Charter for the pacific settlement of disputes. The role of the Movement in promoting a just international order would largely depend on its inner strength, unity and cohesion. It is therefore incumbent on all Member States to work earnestly towards promoting the solidarity and unity of the Movement.
  164. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled the decisions of the Cartagena Summit to Mandate the Coordinating Bureau to study further the question of a mechanism for peaceful settlement of disputes between Member States, including proposals made and positions expressed at the Summit and to report to the Committee on Methodology. They noted that this study has yet to be submitted.

  165. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION
     
     

    A. PALESTINE AND THE MIDDLE EAST

    PALESTINE
     
     

  166. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their traditional long standing solidarity with the Palestinian people, and noted that these days mark the 50th Anniversary of the dispossession of the Palestinian people and the uprooting of hundreds of thousands Palestinians from their land, homes and properties. They called for the implementation of all UN Resolutions on the question of Palestine including those related to Palestinian refugees. They reiterated their support for the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people, including their right to retain their homeland and to have their own independent State with Jerusalem as its capital, and they reiterated their demand for the withdrawal of Israel, the occupying Power, from all the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and the other Arab territories occupied since 1967.
  167. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed their position on occupied east Jerusalem, the illegal Israeli settlements, and the applicability of the fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 to all the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem. They demanded that Israel, the Occupying Power, implement relevant Security Council Resolutions in this regard and abide by its legal obligations. They reiterated their support for the recommendations contained in the resolutions adopted during the Tenth Emergency Special Session (ES-10/2, ES-10/3, ES-10/4 and ES-10/5) including, inter alia, the recommendation to convene a conference of the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention on measures to enforce the Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and to ensure its respect in fulfilment of their collective responsibility as stipulated in common article 1 of the Fourth Geneva Convention.
  168. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed support for the draft resolution submitted by the Arab Group and other States to the 52nd Session of the UN General Assembly to enable the full participation of Palestine in the work of the United Nations and all its subsidiary organs. They reiterated that the Israeli participation in the work of the General Assembly must be in conformity with International law and the Charter of the United Nations.
  169. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their deep concern over the current deadlock of the Palestinian-Israeli Track of the Middle East peace process as a result of the policies and actions of the Israeli Government, in violation of the existing agreements, including settlement activities, repressive measures and economic suffocation of the Palestinian people. In this regard, they condemned in particular the recent killing and wounding by the Israeli army of scores of Palestinian civilians. They called for increasing efforts to ensure compliance by Israel with the existing agreements and their timely implementation.

  170. SYRIAN GOLAN
     
     

  171. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that all measures and actions taken, or to be taken by Israel, the occupying power, such as its illegal decision of 14 December 1981 that purport to alter the legal, physical and demographic status of the occupied Syrian Golan and its institutional structure, as well as the Israeli measures to apply its jurisdiction and administration there, are null and void. They also reaffirmed that all such measures and actions constitute a flagrant violation of international law, international conventions, the Charter and decisions of the UN, particularly Security Council resolution 497 (1981), the fourth Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 on the protection of civilians in time of war, and a defiance of the will of the international community. They demanded Israel to comply with Security Council solution 497 (1 981) and to withdraw fully from the occupied Syrian Golan, to the lines of 4 June 1967, in implementation of Security Council resolutions 242 and 338.
  172. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation affirmed their unwavering support and solidarity with the Syrian just demand and right to fully restore the occupied Syrian Golan on the basis of the terms of reference of the Madrid peace process, the decisions of the international legitimacy, as well as the formula of land for peace. They demanded that Israel respect all commitments and pledges entered into, and to resume the peace talks from where they stopped.

  173. LEBANON
     
     

  174. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and the Heads of Delegation of the Non-Aligned countries while expressing their deep concern over the continued Israeli aggression against Lebanon, called for Israel's complete, immediate, and unconditional and unrestricted withdrawal from Southern Lebanon and Western Bekaa to the internationally recognized boundaries in accordance with Security Council Resolutions 425 (1978) and 426 (1978) and to fully and strictly respect the territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon. They also maintained that any conditions put forward by Israel for the implementation of Resolution 425 (1978) would alter its legal and political structure and are hence unacceptable.

  175. THE PEACE PROCESS
     
     

  176. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the need to achieve comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East. They affirmed their determination to actively strive toward the attainment of this objective. They reiterated their support for the Middle East Peace Process based on Security Council Resolutions 242, 338 and 425 and the principle of land for peace; They further reiterated the need for compliance with and implementation of the agreements reached between the Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel as well as the fulfilment of the commitments and pledges made in accordance with the terms of reference of Madrid conference and the ensued negotiations. They expressed grave concern over the current plight of the process, the deadlock of the Palestinian-Israeli track and the total cessation of the Syrian-Israeli and Lebanese-Israeli tracks. They deplored the attempts of the Israeli Government to change the terms of reference of the peace process, to create facts on the ground which are obstacles to peace and to try to develop unacceptable concepts which are contrary to the principle of land for peace and the national rights of the Palestinian people.
  177. In view of the urgency and seriousness of the situation, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation request NAM countries to increase pressure and use all available measures on regional and international level to ensure Israel's compliance with the terms of reference of the Madrid Conference and the land for peace principles and its full implementation of all agreements, undertakings, and commitments reached by the concerned parties on all tracks during the peace talks. The Ministers also affirmed that failure by the Israeli government to respond positively, would require NAM members to take further appropriate measures.

  178. B. EUROPE

     CYPRUS
     
     

  179. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed all previous positions and declarations of the Non-Aligned Movement on the question of Cyprus and expressed deep concern and disappointment over the fact that no progress has been achieved in the search for a just and viable solution due to the Turkish intransigence and the attempt of the Turkish side to introduce preconditions to the two rounds of direct negotiations, held in July and August 1997, between the President of Cyprus and the Turkish Cypriot leader, at the United Nations Secretary - General's initiative.
  180. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their support for the sovereignty, unity, independence and territorial integrity of the Republic of Cyprus, and their solidarity with the people and the Government of Cyprus. They called once again for the withdrawal of all occupation forces and settlers, the return of the refugees to their homes in conditions of safety, the restoration of and respect for human rights of all Cypriots and the accounting for all missing persons.
  181. While reiterating their position that the present status quo in Cyprus, created and maintained by the use of force, is unacceptable, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the importance and urgency for the effective implementation of all UN resolutions, in particular Security Council Resolutions 365(1974), 541(1983), 550(1984) and 939(1994), and to that end, for the Security Council to take resolute action and appropriate measures including the holding of an international conference and the demilitarization of Cyprus, as repeatedly proposed by the President of Cyprus. They expressed grave concern about recent continuous Turkish threats of use of force against Cyprus and integration of the occupied territory by Turkey and deplored threats by the Turkish side that it will not attend any new round of talks unless the purported state in the occupied territory is recognized. They condemn the declared attempts of the Turkish side for a change of the basis of the inter-communal dialogue under the mandate of the United Nations Secretary-General. They consider such demands contrary to the relevant UN resolutions, the Non-Aligned Declarations and the principles of international law and call for their withdrawal.
  182. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern at the continuing lack of political will on the part of the Turkish side, as confirmed by the report of the United Nations Secretary-General (document S/1994/629, dated 30 May 1994), they reaffirmed their support for the United Nations Secretary General's efforts for a just, comprehensive and workable solution, as provided in paragraph 2 of Security Council resolution 939 (1994) and decided to request the contact group of Non-Aligned countries to remain seized of the situation and actively support such efforts.

  183. SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
     
     

  184. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reviewed the developments that occurred in the Mediterranean region since the Cartagena Summit. They reaffirmed their determination to intensify the process of dialogue and consultations in the promotion of comprehensive and equitable cooperation in the region in resolving the problems existing in the Mediterranean region, in the elimination of the causes of tension and the consequent threat to peace and security. They stressed that respect for the right to self-determination, elimination of foreign occupation and foreign bases, non-interference in the internal affairs and respect for the sovereignty of States are prerequisites for the establishment of peace and stability in the Mediterranean region.
  185. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the various initiatives advanced to promote Mediterranean cooperation and security as reflected in the relevant paragraphs of the Final Document of Cartagena. In welcoming the decision taken by the IPU Second Conference on Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean to set up an association of Mediterranean States, they stressed their conviction that parliaments should be actively involved in bringing the peoples of the Mediterranean region closer together.
  186. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation took note of the ongoing Euro-Mediterranean process and welcomed the holding of the Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Ministers Meeting in Malta on 15 and 16 April 1997 and the Mediterranean Forum in Algiers on 16 July 1997 and in Palma de Mallorca on 20 and 21 April 1996. In this regard, they recognized that prospects for a closer Euro-Mediterranean partnership in all its fields, including at the parliamentary level, would enhance such process and would benefit from the participation of all Mediterranean States in strengthening the cooperation in the region.
  187. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also welcomed the first preparatory meeting at parliamentary level between the European Parliament and Parliamentarians from the Mediterranean countries involved in the Euro-Med, process, to be held in Malta in late May 1998, to agree on objectives, participation and venue for the first Euro-Mediterranean Meeting at Parliamentary Level to be held later this year, with the aim to further explore the potential for developing the parliamentary dimension of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership and to better define its specific objectives and modalities.
  188. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation commended the efforts of the Non-Aligned Mediterranean countries in meeting the emerging multiple challenges heightened by terrorist activities and organized criminal activity, including drug trafficking, money laundering and illegal migration, which are posing a serious threat to security and stability in the region. In this context, they committed themselves to strengthen further their cooperation with the view to eliminating these threats and thus enhancing the current political, economic and social situation in the Mediterranean region.

  189. C. AFRICA
     
     

  190. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the recent developments in Africa to enhance economic cooperation and social development in the continent. They particularly welcomed the signing and ratification of the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community and urged all participating countries to create the necessary environment within their countries and sub-regions to give full expression to the ideals embodied in the Treaty.
  191. In this regard they noted with satisfaction the measures taken by African States to restructure their economies in order to improve their economic situation. However they regretted the fact that despite all the efforts made in a context of serious social and economic constraints, the situation remains disturbing especially as a result of the persistence of the serious debt burden. They underlined the need for concerted action by international community including international financial institutions and developed countries to find a durable solution to the problem of external debt.
  192. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted with concern the continued acts of violence perpetrated by terrorist groups against States / Government and innocent civilians, causing instability and severe disruption of development efforts in the continent. In this regard they welcomed the efforts undertaken by African countries towards the resolution of incipient and persistent conflicts in the continent and called on the international community to support these efforts.
  193. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the existence of an intrinsic link between peace and development which requires an integrated approach to conflict prevention, resolution and management. In this regard, they reiterated their support for the efforts of the Organizations of African Unity, subregional organizations and the UN to resolve conflicts in Africa to enhance durable peace and sustainable development.
  194. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation call upon all African countries, to continue to resolve their differences and conflicts, including those related to international boundaries in accordance with the OAU Charter and relevant Principles. They reaffirmed the responsibility of the UN, especially the Security Council in the maintenance of peace, security and stability in the continent.
  195. The Ministers of Foreign affairs and Heads of Delegation took note of the report of the UN Secretary General on "The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa". They commended the Secretary General for his timely and comprehensive report proposing guidelines on conflict prevention management and resolution.
  196. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation invited the Security Council to establish a follow-up mechanism to implement the recommendations contained in the Secretary-General's report, within its own competence.
  197. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recommended that the General Assembly, the UN system, the Bretton Woods institutions and other appropriate bodies consider the Secretary - General's report and to follow up the recommendations contained therein.

  198. LIBYA
     
     

  199. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reconfirmed the position of the Movement, as stated in the final communique of the 11th Summit held in Cartagena, and expressed their concern over the absence of any response on the part of the concerned Western countries to the efforts made by regional and international Organisations aimed at reaching a peaceful settlement, based on the principles of international law, and the accelerated lifting of the air embargo and the other measures imposed on Libya, pursuant to Security Council resolutions 748 (1992) and 883 (1993). They further emphasized that the escalation of force as a means of managing of relations among states, constitute a violation of the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of the Non-Aligned Movement. They reiterated their support for the proposals jointly submitted by the Organization of African Unity and the League of Arab States, and endorsed by the Summit of African heads of State and Government in its 33rd regular session held in Harare in 1997.
  200. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the judgments of the International Court of Justice dated 27 February 1998, stipulating that it is competent to look into the case and calls on the United Nations Security Council to immediately suspend the sanctions imposed upon Libya by Security Council resolution No. 748/1992 and 883/1993 until the International Court of Justice delivers final judgment on the case referred to it in accordance with the United Nations Charter relieving the suffering of the Libyan Arab people, and in order to put back the case on its legal track. Unless the countries concerned respond to these proposals by the next periodic review in July 1998, the Ministers recommend that the 12th Summit of the Movement, emanating from article 25 of the Charter and because these sanctions are in violation of articles 27(3), 32, 33, 36 and 94 of the Charter, adopt a resolution that would put an end to compliance with the sanctions resolutions in view of the immense harmful effects, both human and economic, they have caused the Libyan Arab people and to some peoples of the state members of the Non-Aligned Movement. In this regard, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation have decided to establish a Ministerial Committee integrated by South Africa, Malaysia, Zimbabwe, Cuba, Laos and Burkina Faso, with the aim of following up the development of the dispute, and to exert further efforts towards the implementation of one of the alternatives, which had already been adopted by the Movement, in order to reach a prompt, peaceful and a just settlement to the dispute.

  201. WESTERN SAHARA
     
     

  202. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation, noting the latest progress in resolving the question of Western Sahara, reiterated the support of the Movement for the efforts of the United Nations to organize and supervise an impartial, free and fair referendum in accordance with the Settlement Plan, the Houston Agreements and with relevant Security Council and UN Resolutions.

  203. SIERRA LEONE
     
     

  204. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reviewed events in Sierra Leone since their last meeting in New Delhi and regretted the deterioration in the political situation in that country occasioned by the forcible overthrow of the constitutionally elected Government of H.E. President Tejan Kabbah by a group of military putschists. They deplored the considerable havoc wreaked thereby on the social and economic infrastructures of the country, and terror and destruction experienced by its peace-loving people. However, they noted, with satisfaction, that through the determined efforts of the sub-regional peacekeeping force, ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), acting with the full and express authority of ECOWAS Heads of State and Government and within the purview of the relevant United Nations Security Council Resolution, the situation has been reversed and H.E. Mr. Abmed Tejan Kabbah restored to power in Freetown on Tuesday, 10 March, 1998, as the Head of the legitimate government of the country. This development has facilitated the return of peace and stability to the country, thus creating the basis for the resumption of the development programme earlier initiated by his government. They, therefore commended countries in the sub-region for their positive role as well as the collaborating efforts of OAU and the United Nations, in the process. They appealed to the international community to respond positively to the urgent reconstruction needs of the Sierra Leonean people through the provision of requisite assistance.

  205. SOMALIA
     
     

  206. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted with concern the lack of progress in the resolution of the crisis of Somalia. They reiterated the call that all Somali factional leaders cooperate in the search of a comprehensive and durable peace, in Somalia, by adhering to the various agreements reached over the past years, in particular the agreements concluded at Sodere (Ethiopia), Nairobi and Sanaa.
  207. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the Cairo accord signed in Cairo by the Somalia Factions in December 1997, and noted the outcome of the Addis Abeba Meeting of the National Salvation Council held in January 1998.
  208. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their full support for all efforts made by the international community, including regional actors, in particular the countries of IGAD, to assist in the resolution of the problem of Somalia. In this context, they stressed the need for coordination of all efforts for peace in Somalia with the regional initiative of IGAD.
  209. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation appealed to the international community to provide humanitarian, economic and reconstruction assistance to the people of Somalia in a well calibrated manner and with the goal of advancing the peace process and strengthening constituencies for peace.

  210. LIBERIA

  211. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recall their position on the political situation in Liberia at their XIIth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, India, 7-9 April 1997. In this connection, they commended the people of Liberia for their resolve in bringing about a peaceful resolution of their civil conflict through the holding of free and fair presidential and legislative elections which were monitored and observed by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the United Nations. The Ministers also commended the democratic elected government of H.E.Mr Charles Taylor President of the Republic of Liberia. They noted that the peace process in Liberia was principally advanced by the efforts of the Sub-Regional Organisation ECOWAS and whose leadership they commended for displaying the strongest commitment to the resolution of the Liberian civil conflict. They expressed their appreciation to the international community for its humanitarian assistance to Liberia and welcomed the initiative of the donor community through the holding of a successful Donors Meeting on Liberia in April 1998, in Paris, France, and called upon the international community including Member States to support the reconstruction programme of Liberia.

  212. ANGOLA
     
     

  213. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the progress achieved in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol and commended the parties, in particular the Government of Angola, for the flexibility and political will demonstrated, aiming towards a long and lasting peace in Angola. They urged UNITA to cooperate in good faith with the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation and the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) in completing the remaining tasks of the Lusaka Protocol, namely, the normalization of State Administration throughout the national territory, including in particular, Bailundo, Andulo, Mungo and Nharea, as well as the establishment of its leadership in the capital, in conformity with relevant Security Council resolution. The Ministers reiterated their appeal to the international community in order to increase the amount of humanitarian relieve provided to the needy populations including the ex-combatants. The Ministers expressed their dismay at the reports proving the re-mining by UNITA of roads already cleared.

  214. CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO
     
     

  215. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated the support of the Non-Aligned Movement for the sovereignty of Mauritius over the Chagos Archipelago, including Diego Garcia, and called on the former colonial power to pursue the dialogue with the Government of Mauritius for the early return of the archipelago. In this respect, they noted with satisfaction the initiation of certain confidence-building measures by the two parties.

  216. D. ASIA

     IRAQ
     
     

  217. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation deplored the imposition and continued military enforcement of "No Fly Zones" on Iraq by individual countries without any authorization from the UN Security Council or General Assembly.
  218. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the need to work diligently towards resolving the fate of 700 Iraqi civilians and military personnel who went missing after the military actions of 1991, and whose individual files have been submitted to ICRC. They also urged that help be extended to Iraq through UNESCO and other competent bodies for the restoration of all objects of art and antiquity stolen or smuggled out of Iraq during past years.

  219. TURKEY-IRAQ
     
     

  220. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation strongly condemned the repeated actions of the Turkish armed forces violating the territorial integrity of Iraq under the pretext of fighting guerrilla elements hiding inside Iraqi territory. These actions of the Turkish armed forces constitute stark illegal violations of the international boundaries mutually recognized between the two countries and a threat to regional and international peace and security. They also rejected the so-called "hot-pursuit" measures adopted by Turkey to justify such actions which are abhorrent to international law and to the norms of practice amongst States.

  221. THE SITUATION BETWEEN IRAQ AND KUWAIT
     
     

  222. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reviewed the situation between Iraq and Kuwait and emphasized that all Member States in the Movement are committed to respect the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of both Kuwait and Iraq. They also emphasized that the full implementation of all relevant Security Council resolutions constitute the means of establishing peace, security and stability in the region. In this respect, the Ministers stressed the importance of Iraq to its completion of implementation of all relevant Security Council resolutions.
  223. In this respect, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the need to resolve expeditiously the fate of all prisoners/detainees and missing persons of Kuwait and third country nationals by means of serious and sincere cooperation with International Committee of the Red Cross to reach a solution of this particular issue and to return the properties of the Government of Kuwait including official documents removed from national archives seized by Iraq.
  224. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their support and appreciation to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan, for the timely exercise of his leadership on seeking a diplomatic and peaceful solution on the crisis on Iraq as it was suggested by NAM on 11 February 1998. They also expressed their confidence that the agreement reached in Baghdad provided a diplomatic way out of the crisis on Iraq and contributed positively to the preservation of peace and security in the region.
  225. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reviewed the issue of human suffering in Iraq and positively noted recent developments that allow the import of essential civilian necessities by Iraq. In this respect, they welcomed the Security Council Resolution 1153(1998).
  226. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted with deep concern the continuing deterioration of the humanitarian conditions of Iraqi population due to sanctions. Based upon the principles and decision of the Movement, they urge member states of the Movement to deploy their efforts to halt this tragedy and help in lifting the sanctions as soon as possible in accordance with relevant Security Council resolutions.

  227. KOREAN PENINSULA
     
     

  228. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern over the fact that the Korean peninsula remains still divided in spite of the desires and aspirations of the Korean people for the reunification, and reaffirmed their support to the Korean people to reunify their homeland in accordance with the three principles set forth in the North-South Joint Statement on July 4, 1972 and through dialogue and negotiations on the basis of the Agreement on Reconciliation, Non-Aggression, and Cooperation and Exchange between the North and South concluded in February 1992.
  229. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation considered the importance of guaranteeing a durable peace and security in the Korean Peninsula for the sake of the common prosperity of the Korean People as well as the peace and security in North-East Asia and the rest of the world.

  230. AFGHANISTAN
     
     

  231. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national unity of Afghanistan, and called upon all States strictly to refrain from any outside interference in the international affairs of Afghanistan. They stress that the main responsibility for finding a political solution to the conflict lay with the Afghan parties themselves.
  232. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern at the continuation of the military confrontation in Afghanistan, and called upon all States concerned immediately to end the supply of arms, ammunition, military equipment, training or other military support to all parties to the conflict in Afghanistan, including the presence and involvement of foreign military personnel.
  233. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation were convinced that there was no military solution to the Afghan conflict and called upon all Afghan parties to cease immediately all armed hostilities, to renounce the use of force and to engage, without preconditions, in a political dialogue aimed at achieving a lasting political settlement of the conflict.
  234. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed the hope that the Afghan parties would move towards national reconciliation in accordance with UN General Assembly resolutions 52/211, 51/195 and 51/108 in cooperation with the United Nations and the Organization of the Islamic Conference.
  235. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern about actions undermining the security of State frontiers, including the growing illicit traffic in arms by criminal elements and groups from certain areas of Afghanistan and about the use of Afghan territory for the training and harbouring of terrorists, which create a threat to peace and stability in the entire region, including Afghanistan.
  236. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted the recent success in bringing all the Afghan parties together under the auspices of the United Nations and the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the progress made in the Afghan peace process during the meeting of the Steering Committee held in Islamabad, Pakistan, from 26 April to 3 May 1998. They expressed the hope that resumed negotiations would pave the way to a durable peace in Afghanistan.

  237. SOUTH-EAST ASIA
     
     

  238. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized the role of ASEAN in maintaining peace, stability and prosperity in the region and in enhancing cooperation in the wider Asia-Pacific region, and that of ARF in promoting dialogue and mutual confidence amongst its participants. They welcomed the progress of ASEAN's continuing efforts to realize the objective of establishing a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality in South-East Asia (ZOPFAN) and the entry into force of the Treaty on the South-East Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ). They regarded the establishment of SEANWFZ as an important contribution to peace, security and stability in the Asia Pacific region. For the effectiveness of the Treaty, the Ministers encouraged all nuclear-weapon States to extend their support and cooperation by acceding to the Protocol of the Treaty.
  239. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized the need to resolve all sovereignty and jurisdictional disputes concerning the South China Sea by peaceful means without resort to force and/or threat to use force, and urge all parties to exercise restraint with a view to creating a positive climate for the eventual resolution of all contentious issues. They expressed concern over recent developments that may lead to a deterioration of peace and stability in the region. In this context, the Ministers supported the principles contained in the 1992 ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea, and stressed the need for the full implementation of such principles by all concerned. They expressed the hope that all concerned will refrain from further actions that may undermine peace, stability, trust and confidence in the region, including possibly undermining freedom of navigation and aviation in affected areas. They likewise urged the claimants to address the issue in various bilateral and multilateral fora, and in this regard reiterated the significance of promoting all types of confidence-building measures among all parties. To this end, they welcomed the Indonesian initiative in sponsoring the workshop on managing the potential conflict in the South China Sea and other measures launched by the concerned parties in the region to enhance cooperation and to ensure the peaceful settlement of all outstanding questions.

  240. E. LATIN AMERICA

     CUBA
     
     

  241. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their deep concern about the economic, commercial and financial embargo against Cuba, and the widening of its extra-territorial nature, in particular on the new legislation aimed at intensifying it. They further reiterated the views expressed on Cuba at the Cartagena Summit, the Twelfth Ministerial Conference held in New Delhi and the Ministerial Meeting held in New York on 25 September, 1997, and called once again the Government of the United States to return the territory now occupied by the Guantanamo Naval base to Cuban sovereignty and to put an end to aggressive radio and TV transmissions against Cuba.

  242. GUYANA AND VENEZUELA CONTROVERSY
     
     

  243. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation took note of the firm commitment of Guyana and Venezuela to peacefully resolve the controversy which exists between them. In this regard, they fully supported the Parties in their decision to continue to avail themselves of the good offices of the UN Secretary General and his Special Representative in order to reach a final settlement as called for by the Geneva Agreement of 1966.

  244. CHAPTER II

     ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES

     GLOBALIZATION ISSUES
     
     

  245. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that while the current trend of globalization and liberalisation leads to increasing economic opportunity for developing economies, it is evident that a large number of NAM member States continue to be marginalized and unable to share the benefits of this process. They noted with concern that unless supportive measures for the marginalized developing economies are provided during their transition period the gap between the rich and poor countries will continue to widen. They stressed that the recent financial crisis experienced by a number of countries who are Members of the Movement is a clear indication of the negative impact that the current globalization trend can have on developing countries and the risks it poses to the South.
  246. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted that globalization and liberalization, with its characteristic for rapid growth in international trade and capital flows, the growth in the importance of the services sector and foreign direct investment, the integration of production processes and the impact of multilateral institutions, present challenges for developing countries, and impact negatively on developing countries generally. In this regard, they expressed grave concern at the negative impact of recent sharp fluctuations in global markets fuelled primarily by speculation and short-term capital flows and called on the international financial community and governments of developed countries in particular to curb and mitigate this impact in developing countries, in particular as well as enabling developing countries to be full participants in international capital flows, trade and investment.
  247. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the first-ever special meeting of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) with the participation of the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs) held in New York on 18 April 1998 and encouraged such high-level meetings on a regular basis. They welcomed the UN General Assembly's decision to hold the first two day high level dialogue from 17 - 18 September 1998 on the theme of social and economic impact of globalization and interdependence and their policy implications. They encouraged the developing countries to actively participate in the high level dialogue. They further encouraged both developed and developing countries to actively engage in such dialogue in the spirit of genuine partnership with a view to reaching a meaningful and successful conclusion and strengthening international and economic cooperation for development.
  248. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted with concern the growing marginalization of the least developed countries in world trade, with their total export continuing to be under 0.4 per cent of global exports. The prospect of their loosing out further has considerably increased with the ongoing globalization. In particular, the least developed countries have encountered this process with distinct disadvantage. All countries, particularly the developed ones, should co-ordinate and implement strategies so that the products from all least developed countries gain easy and preferential access to the external markets.
  249. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted that the high growth in some developing countries was contributing significantly to the locomotive forces of the world economic growth and thus the process of global integration of developing countries was paying dividends to the industrialized countries as well. In recent years, economic growth of developing countries have continued to outpace that of developed countries as a whole. It is, however, regrettable that the voice of developing countries in decision-making still did not realistically reflect their emergence as important actors in the world economy. They urged developed countries to give this cumulative contribution and role meaningful and commensurate recognition. The participation of developing countries in global economic decision-making, particularly in the international financial institutions, as well as in trade and other economic areas, should be thus enhanced. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation reiterated the need for such democratization and transparency in international economic and financial decision making in all fora and at all levels, with the full participation of developing countries so as to ensure that their development interests will be fully taken into account.
  250. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the need to establish an open, rule based, accountable, predictable, just, equitable, comprehensive and non-discriminatory global system of economic relations, specially at a time when developing countries are actively engaged in the process of liberalization and integration into the global economy. They therefore reaffirmed that there is no alternative other than a constructive dialogue between developed and developing countries. Such a dialogue should be based on common interests, mutual benefits, genuine interdependence and shared responsibilities.
  251. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that low wages and environmental standards in developing countries are not responsible for the loss of jobs in developed countries. Developed countries should address their unemployment problems through the implementation of appropriate macro-economic and structural policies. The problem of unemployment will not be solved by protectionism. However, while developing countries are committed to promoting all relevant labour standards, they reject their use for protectionist purposes. They urged the developed countries to undertake necessary structural adjustments and refrain from protectionist tendencies against competitive imports from developing countries and against FDI outflows to them, in the interest of new growth opportunities.
  252. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and the Heads of Delegation affirmed that the ILO is the only international body competent to set and deal with labour standards. They reaffirmed that the most urgent task before the ILO is to promote social justice through the creation of employment in the developing countries, thereby ensuring the greatest good of the greatest number of workers in all parts of the world, particularly in the developing countries. They reiterated that there is no linkage between trade and labor standards and rejected all attempts to establish such a linkage as well as the use of labour standards as a pretext for unilateral actions in the field of trade. They reaffirmed that efforts to link trade with labour standards obstructed the attainment of the objectives for which the ILO was created and rendered the implementation of values and principles of the ILO more difficult.

  253. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR DEVELOPMENT
     
     

  254. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation urged that the role of the United Nations in promoting international economic cooperation for development be strengthened. They reiterated their support to UN bodies, programs, funds and specialized agencies which serve the developmental objectives of developing countries. They stressed that in strengthening the role of the United Nations in development there is a need to preserve and reinforce the distinctive and separate role and identity of the operational Funds and Programmes. They welcomed the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance, including for Human and International Capacity Building, to support Least-Developed Countries in their trade and trade related activity endorsed by the High Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for Least-Developed Countries Trade and Development, held in Geneva during 27-28 October 1997. They urged that these initiatives be implemented to integrate Least-Developed Countries into the global economic system under the WTO.
  255. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation emphasized the importance of UNCTAD as the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of development and interrelated issues in the areas of commodities, trade, finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. They highlighted the role of UNCTAD in assisting developing countries to integrate themselves in the world economy and in building a development perspective within ongoing and future trade negotiations. In this respect, they recalled the Midrand Declaration and, while looking forward to the consolidation of UNCTAD's reforms, they stressed the role of UNCTAD in operating the International Trade Centre (ITC). They emphasized the essential restoration of the Center's current budgetary and administrative arrangements.
  256. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed concern at the continuing decline in the availability of core resources to UN Funds and Programmes, especially the UNDP. They noted with satisfaction the growing number of programme countries which contributed to enhance core resources of the UN Funds and Programmes, despite constraints, and stressed the need for donor countries to substantially increase their voluntary contributions to these resources. They also urged UN Funds and Programmes to utilize the available resources for the essential priorities of the developing countries, which remain eradication of poverty and sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The Ministers stressed the central role of the UN in promoting international cooperation for development and facilitating an international economic environment conducive to development, and called for this to be strengthened. They called on the UN system to support the developmental objectives of developing countries through greater emphasis on technical assistance. They called on the UN system to support the developmental objectives of developing countries and also urged UN Funds and Programmes to enhance the utilization of available resources for the essential priorities of the developing countries for eradication of poverty and sustained economic growth and sustainable development, including through increased provision of technical assistance.
  257. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern for the evident lack of political will by the developed countries to revitalize international cooperation for development. In this sense, they expressed their deep concern on their reduction in official development assistance and called on the developed countries to ensure the fulfilment of their commitment to meet the United Nation target of 0.7% of the GNP as official development assistance for the developing countries and also to ensure that within that target 0.15 to 0.2 per cent of GNP be earmarked for the least developed countries.

  258. AGENDA FOR DEVELOPMENT
     
     

  259. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the need for strong political commitment by the international community for the successful implementation of the Agenda for Development. They also stressed the importance of mobilizing adequate resources for the implementation so that it can contribute effectively to diminish existing imbalances and guarantee accelerated and sustained economic growth in the developing countries. To ensure the effective implementation of the Agenda, the Ministers urged that the follow-up and assessment mechanism of the Agenda be seriously undertaken by the General Assembly. They also stressed the importance of dialogue on strengthening international cooperation for development through partnership based on the mutuality of interests and benefits, shared responsibilities and genuine interdependence.
  260. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the need to hold a high level international conference on financing for development. In this context, they noted the process launched by UN General Assembly resolution 52/186. They stressed that the international conference on financing for development should be held no later than the year 2001.
  261. The Ministers for Foreign affairs and the Heads of Delegation welcomed the adoption of resolution 52/179 in the 52nd session of the UNGA paving the way for a preparatory process for high-level, international, intergovernmental, consideration on financing for development. They reiterated that finance for development is crucial for developing countries and that consideration of this issue should build on existing processes and commitments, review of institutional and other mechanisms and address the new challenges arising both from the growing significance of new stakeholders and the dynamics of globalization and liberalization. They noted that the process launched by the adoption of resolution 52/179 provided the international community with the historic opportunity to enable the UN to discharge its responsibilities in the area of development, as envisaged under the Charter.
  262. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined that in the area of development assistance, it is imperative that new and additional financial resources be provided by developed countries, as well as the transfer of technology on preferential and concessional terms to developing countries, if the consensus built in the recent series of United Nations international conferences and other consensus agreements are to be kept.

  263. INTERNATIONAL TRADE
     
     

  264. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted that this year marks 50 years of the international trading system, and although the international community has reason to celebrate the progress that has been made towards the establishment and consolidation of the multilateral trading system, however, much more remains to be done to ensure that the global trading regime is truly equitable, benefiting developing and developed countries alike. In this regard, the strengthening of special and differential treatment for developing countries, removal of market access barriers, in developed countries, against the exports of developing countries, and full implementation of commitments in areas of particular interest to developing countries, such as textiles and agriculture, are some of the measures that need to be taken urgently. These measures need to be accompanied by an unequivocal commitment that non-trade issues as social issues, will not be introduced in the agenda of the WTO.
  265. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that in a considerable number of crucial areas the negotiated results of the Uruguay Round fell short of the expectations of the developing countries. They regretted that the implementation of the Uruguay Round results in areas of export interest to developing countries has been inadequate and tardy. Trading opportunities of developing countries were neutralized by the use of protectionist measures by developed countries, including those taken unilaterally and in the guise of technical standards, environmental, social, or human-rights-related concerns. They agreed that developing countries should consult closely while formulating their positions on the issues being addressed by the WTO. In this regard, they urged developing countries to work together to elaborate a forward looking agenda for future trade negotiations which would incorporate issues of concern to the developing countries, and would thereby enable them to take the initiative in any future rounds of negotiations.
  266. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation urged the developed countries to:
  267. Note: paragraphs number 230 to 238 in document CB/MM-Doc.4-Rev.4 were deleted since they were sub-paragraphs of paragraph 229.
  268. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation invited preference giving countries to continue to improve and renew their Generalized System of Preferences schemes in keeping with the post-Uruguay Round trading system and with the objective of integrating developing countries, especially the least developed countries, into the international trading system, and stressed that ways and means should be found to ensure more effective utilization of those schemes, particularly by the least developed countries.
  269. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegations welcomed the holding of the WTO High Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for Least Developed Countries on Trade and Development held in Geneva from 27 to 28 October 1997. They noted the adoption of the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance, including for Human and Institutional Capacity-Building, to support Least developed Countries in their Trade and Trade-related activities, and welcomed the envisaged closer cooperation between WTO and other multilateral agencies assisting least developed countries, in particular UNCTAD and WTO, as well as the IMF, World Bank and UNDP. They urged these international organizations to ensure effective cooperation amongst themselves and speedy implementation of the actions requested by LDC's. They urged the developed countries to ensure that the necessary funds are made available to these organizations to secure implementation of these proposed measures.
  270. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation condemned persistence by certain States in intensifying unilateral coercive measures and exercise of domestic legislations with extra-territorial effects against developing countries. Such actions include blockades, embargoes and freezing of assets with purpose of preventing these countries from exercising the right to fully determine their political, economic and social systems and freely expand their international trade. They reiterated that these measures are contrary to international law, and open, multilateral and non-discriminatory trading system and called for their immediate cessation. They further stressed the need to contribute more effectively to increase the role of developing countries in international economic system and the need to equal and non-discriminatory right of all countries to join the international trading system and the necessity to keep WTO and its membership procedure non-political and economic oriented one.

  271. COMMODITIES
     
     

  272. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed the importance of commodities in a large number of the countries of the South who overwhelmingly depend on commodities and raw material. The share of these commodities in their Gross Domestic Production (GDP) and export earnings largely condition not only their other economic growth and development but also their ability to service their respective international debt obligations.
  273. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation observed that developments related to the World Trade Organization (WTO) have brought little or no tangible benefits to the countries of the South because of the lukewarm treatment given to commodity issues. For example, on the average, the overall benefits to the North have tended to be much steeper than is the case for the developing countries of the South. Over and above, the escalation of tariffs has also lessened prospects for the countries of the South, given the removal of preferential margins earlier enjoyed under the former Generalized System of Preferences (GSP).
  274. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation therefore underscored the need to focus more attention on commodities and extend the range of commodities traded, including the re-establishment of producer consumer agreements based on an open, multilateral, non discriminatory and rule based international trading system and within the ambit of WTO.

  275. FINANCIAL, INVESTMENT AND MONETARY ISSUES
     
     

  276. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that aid cannot be replaced by foreign direct investment, which so far has been restricted to a handful of developing countries. Indeed, flow of aid is required for creation of conditions in developing countries, particularly the least developed, which would enable them to invest in their infrastructure and make the investment climate more favourable to foreign entrepreneurs.
  277. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized the considerable importance of Foreign Direct Investment for the development of their respective countries, promotion of transfer of technology, including environmentally sound and save technologies, building up of indigenous capacities and generation of employment. They attached particular importance to FDI inflows in the infrastructure and manufacturing sectors. They noted that NAM Countries had taken several steps to create a climate conducive to FDI inflows. They called upon major industrialized countries to take complementary steps so that the actions undertaken by the developing countries could have maximum impact and prevent their marginalization in the global economy. The Ministers also noted that the extend and spread of FDI inflows into developing countries remained uneven. Furthermore, many developing countries were not in a position to attract sufficient FDI. They, therefore, reiterated that FDI can only complement concessional finance and cannot replace it.
  278. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation were of the view that the globalization process has encouraged flows of FDI from industrialized to developing countries and highlighted the role of transnational corporations in economic growth. However, a concentration of these flows in some geographic areas has continued, leaving some others, in particular LDC's, without access to them and without possibility of having the investment multiplicator effect to generate the necessary developments for some important sectors. FDI has been selective, and its flows have been driven to countries where the rates of return are importantly high.
  279. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation were of the view that the issue on a multilateral investment agreement called upon, should be examined by UNCTAD and WTO. They called on UNCTAD to fulfil its mandate of identifying and analyzing implications for development of issues relevant to a possible multilateral framework on investment, taking fully into account the interests of developing countries. They also invited the developing countries to actively participate in these discussions so as to promote and defend their interests.
  280. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern for the recent developments in the international financial and exchange markets and especially the serious pressure on the currencies of several member countries resulting from speculative activities. Having in mind the message sent by the Chairman of NAM to the Group of 8 at their Summit in Birmingham, they reaffirmed their views that, in the same manner that goods and services markets have found through the WTO a framework to abide by, likewise, financial and exchange markets, which are more volatile, integrated and inter-dependent than the latter, should have a specific regulatory framework.
  281. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation urged UNCTAD, in collaboration with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, to study these developments and suggest measures in order to strengthen the global financial system, and that the international financial institutions should create and enhance mechanisms, including surveillance mechanisms, technical assistance and adequate information facilities, so as to prevent financial crises and neutralize their adverse effects, and recommend ways and means on how developing countries can implement mechanisms to discourage the speculative capital flows.
  282. The Ministers underscored the need to pursue a comprehensive reform of the existing inequitable and outdated the international monetary and financial system as stressed by the Heads of States or Government of Non-Aligned Countries during their Summit in New Delhi in 1983. In this regard, they further reiterated the importance of convening an international conference on money and finance for development as called for by the New Delhi Summit focusing on international monetary and financial cooperation with a view to meeting effectively the development and other financing requirement of the international community, particularly the developing countries.
  283. In this regard, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called upon the developed countries and the Bretton Woods Institutions to give further assistance to developing countries in particular those affected by financial crisis, through their support of the ongoing efforts to tackle these problems and their encouragement for their commercial banks to maintain lines or reschedule matured debts so as to help the affected countries overcome the liquidity problems, and minimize the related financial and exchange risks in the economies of developing countries.
  284. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation further urged the developed countries, acting in concert with developing countries, as well as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the United Nations to accelerate the review of the world financial system with the objective of ensuring that short term capital flows are supportive of expanding trade, employment and development.

  285. EXTERNAL DEBT
     
     

  286. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that the evolving debt strategy must be accompanied by a favourable and supportive international economic environment, including the full implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and the Marrakesh ministerial decisions in favour of the least developed countries and the net food-importing developing countries.
  287. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the need for new financial flows to debtor developing countries from all sources, in addition to debt-relief measures that include debt cancellation, and debt and debt-service reduction, and urged creditor countries and multilateral financial institutions to continue to extend concessional financial assistance, particularly to the least developed countries, in order to support the implementation of economic reforms and stabilization and structural adjustment programs by the developing countries that will enable them to extricate themselves from the debt overhang and attract new investment and to assist them in achieving sustained economic growth and sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. In this context, they recalled the appeals presented for the solution of the problem of external debt through, inter alia, its recycling into development priorities of the developing countries concerned.
  288. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that for many developing countries, in particular to LDCs, the external debt burden still is an important element of resources deviation, some of which could be used to alleviate such urgent needs as infra-structure, basic services, education and health. They noted with concern the slow progress made in implementing the HIPC's initiative. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation encouraged early and urgent application of debt relief measures particularly within the context of the HIPC's initiative, and committed themselves to creating the environments within their countries that are conducive to exploiting the benefits these countries will derive from relief and assistance measures. In this context, they reiterated the message conveyed by the Chairman of the Movement to the Leaders of the Group of Eight on the occasion of their Summits in Lyon, Denver and Birmingham, regarding the refinement of the HIPC's initiative.
  289. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called upon the international community, including the United Nations system, and invites the Bretton Woods institutions, as well as the private sector, to take appropriate measures and action for the implementation of the commitments, agreements and decisions of the major United Nations conferences and summits organized since the beginning of the 1990s on development related to the question of external debt.

  290. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
     
     

  291. The Ministers and Heads of Delegation underlined that the progress of developing countries is dependent both on access to technology and on their endogenous capacity to develop it. They attached special importance to environmentally sound and safe technologies and biotechnology. They expressed their grave concern at measures aimed at blocking or impeding, for political and other ends, particularly through coercive economic measures, the transfer of technology to developing countries. The controls imposed by highly industrialized countries on the export of dual-use technology and other types of sensitive technology should not be used to prevent access of developing countries to technology for peaceful, developmental purposes.
  292. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted the work being undertaken by the Commission on Science and Technology for Development on its work programme for member States, especially for developing countries, and reaffirmed its unique role as a functional commission of ECOSOC acting as the sole intergovernmental forum for the consideration of policy matters related to science and technology and its impact on development, for the formulation of recommendations and guidelines on sciences and technology within the United Nations system and for advancing policy and operational recommendations as to how to implement the commitments of major United Nations conferences on the issue of access to and transfer of technology to developing countries. They also called for the strengthening of the Commission to better discharge its role for the examination of science and technology issues, for the improvement of the understanding of science and technology policies and for the formulation of recommendations and guidelines on science and technology matters within the United Nations system, in relation to all development issues.
  293. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their profound concern over the continued inadequacy of resources for fostering science and technology for development, and the lack of political will on the part of the developed countries in fulfilling their commitments in this respect. They called upon the developed countries to facilitate access of developing countries to technology that is held or owned by governments and public institutions or results from publicly-funded research and development activities.
  294. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that education is a determining factor for the political, social, cultural and economic development their peoples. They recognized that science and technology are important to assure growing levels of knowledge and have to be put at the service of education.
  295. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized the need for developing countries to have access to and full benefit from opportunities presented by the growth in information technology, particularly through the cyber-space. In this regard, they called on the developed countries to strengthen the developing countries endogenous capacity building and facilitate their access to rush technology on favourable terms as well as preferential and concessional terms.
  296. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also stressed the need to promote, facilitate and finance as appropriate the access to and transfer of technology, including EST, on favourable and concessional terms. They called for the facilitation of the maintenance and promotion of traditional and indigenous technologies that may have been neglected or displaced in particular in developing countries. They underlined that in the area of bio-genetic resources, it was imperative that rules were codified on the prevention of bio-piracy. They also underlined that such rules needed to be based on the inherent right of communities in developing countries to their indigenous bio-genetic resources and that bio-piracy was an ethical issue affecting the vital socio-economic development of developing countries. The Ministers also stressed the need to ensure that developing countries industries were enabled to have their due share of global bi-trade.
  297. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed with satisfaction the continued implementation of the expanded programme of cooperation by the Centre for Science and Technology of NAM countries and called upon all Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries to subscribe to the Statute of the Centre and to strengthen the Centre financially.

  298. POVERTY ERADICATION
     
     

  299. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that the eradication of poverty through sustained and accelerated economic growth continue to remain the overriding priority for developing countries. In this context, they stressed the need for a supportive international economic and financial environment to address long-term problems of poverty and underdevelopment and reaffirmed the need to facilitate their efforts for the eradication of poverty and the improvement of the well-being of their people.
  300. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed that the eradication of poverty was essential to ensure long term peace and security as well as to achieve sustainable social and economic development. They also reaffirmed that, within the context of overall action for the eradication of poverty, special attention should be given to the multidimensional nature of poverty, to the national and international framework conditions and policies that are conducive to its eradication, to the promotion of an active and visible policy of main streaming a gender perspective and to the utilization of gender analysis as a tool for the integration of a gender dimension into the planning and implementation of policies, strategies and programs on poverty eradication.
  301. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern about the large and increased number of people who suffer from hunger and malnutrition. They emphasized the urgency of taking action to meet the commitments for achieving food security for present and future generations, as mentioned in the Declaration and the Action Plan of the World Food Summit, Rome November 1996.
  302. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation emphasized that, in developing countries, rural development remains central to poverty eradication efforts, and this often includes agrarian reform, investment in infrastructure, extension of rural financial intermediation, ensuring food security, better education and greater utilization of appropriate technology, ensuring fair prices to provide incentives for agricultural investment, and increasing productivity, including productivity in the informal sector.
  303. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the outcome of the Microcredit Summit, held in Washington, D.C., from 2 to 4 February 1997, which through its Declaration and Plan of Action launched a global campaign to reach 100 million of the world's poorest families, especially women of those families, with credit for self-employment and other financial and business services, by the year 2005. They recognized that microcredit programmes, by providing access in many countries of the world to small capitals to people living in poverty, have led to their increasing participation in the mainstream economic and political process of the society. They further recognized that, in addition to its role in the eradication of poverty, microcredit programmes have also been a contributing factor to the social and human development process in the empowerment of women and attaining better social justice. They encouraged development of new and strengthening and expansion of existing microlending institutions so that the outreach of credit is extended to increasing number of people living in poverty and the progress to reach the goal of the Microcredit is accelerated.
  304. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noting the interdependence of nations and the varying levels of human development worldwide, stressed the need for a New Global Human Order aimed at reversing the growing disparities between rich and poor, both among and within countries, through the alleviation of poverty, the expansion of productive employment and the promotion of social integration.

  305. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
     
     

  306. The Ministers recalled the Declaration on UNIDO adopted at the XIth Summit of the Movement and stressed the continuing importance and relevance of UNIDO as the central coordinating agency in the UN system in the field of industrial development. They welcomed the reform process undertaken successfully by UNIDO, to enhance its effectiveness with a firm stand for supporting and promoting industrial development and for providing specialized technical services. They re-affirmed their commitment to support and strengthen UNIDO to enable it to fully exercise its mandate. The Ministers called upon all Member States of UNIDO, in particular the industrialized countries, to renew their commitment to industrial development co-operation and to a stronger and more viable UNIDO in the spirit of global partnership and mutual benefit. They urged some developed countries to reconsider their announced withdrawal from UNIDO. They underscored the need to secure the future of UNIDO as a specialized agency vital to the promotion of industrial development in developing countries in the context of the multilateral development co-operation system.
  307. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated the importance of industrial development for developing countries, especially those in Africa and the important role played by UNIDO in this regard. They called upon the international community including the relevant organizations and bodies of the United Nations and in particular UNIDO to support the implementation of the Programme for the Second Industrial Development Decade for Africa so as to enable African countries to intensify and expand industrial cooperation among themselves.

  308. ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
     
     

  309. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled that the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, includes a statement of commitment to Agenda 21 and to the goals of sustainable development; an assessment of progress made since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in all main areas of Agenda 21 and other outcomes of the Conference; a broad range of decisions and recommendations aimed at fostering progress in various sectoral and cross-sectoral areas of Agenda 21 and, in particular in its means of implementation; decisions aimed at strengthening global and regional institutional arrangements for achieving sustainable development; and recommendations on the future methods of work of the Commission on Sustainable Development and the programme of work of the Commission for the period 1998-2002. They noted the setting up of a High Level Task Force on strengthening of UNEP and Habitat by the United Nations Secretary General and reiterated their commitment to these two bodies. They called for provision of necessary resources to enable them to strengthen their capacities for implementation, within existing mandates, including technical assistance to developing countries.
  310. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern at the disappointing lack of fulfilment of international commitments voluntarily undertaken by industrialized countries at the Rio Earth Summit. They drew attention to the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 agreed at the UNGA Special Summit in June, 1997 which, inter alia, calls for urgent fulfilment of commitments for the transfer of environmentally sound technology, including time-bound commitments, as appropriate, to developing countries.
  311. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation, while recognizing that a number of positive results have been achieved, were deeply concerned that the overall trends with respect to sustainable development are worse today then they were in 1992, that new and additional financial resources to developing countries have not been provided, the transfer of environmentally sound technologies in favourable and concessional and preferential terms has not been materialized, and that the developed countries have not assumed the principle of share but differentiated responsibility. Hence, they emphasized that the implementation of Agenda 21 in a comprehensive manner remains vitally important and is more urgent now than ever.
  312. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized that a mutually supportive balance between the international and the national environment is needed in the pursuit of sustainable development and that the gap income between developed and developing countries points to the continued need for a dynamic and enabling international economic environment supportive of international cooperation, particularly in the fields of finance, technology transfer, debt and trade, if the momentum for global progress towards sustained economic growth and sustainable development is to be maintained and increased.
  313. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the Kyoto Protocol on legally binding commitments for the parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change to reduce their emission of Greenhouse Gases as contained in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol. They called on the developed countries to undertake urgent and effective steps to implement these commitments through domestic action. Emission trading for implementation of such commitments can only commence after issues relating to the principles, modalities etc. of such trading, including the initial allocations of emission entitlement on an equitable basis to all countries has been agreed upon by the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Ministers categorically rejected all attempts by some developed countries to link their ratification of the Kyoto Protocol with the question of participation by developing countries in the reduction of GHG emissions. They also called for immediate measures to provide the developing countries with necessary financial resources and clean technology to enable them to meet their existing commitments under the Framework convention on Climate Change, including inter alia, inventorization of national emissions and dissemination of knowledge of climate change.
  314. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called upon States, relevant intergovernmental bodies and all others involved in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction to participate actively in the financial and technical support for the Decade activities, including those related to international cooperation to reduce the impact of the El Nino phenomenon and catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods, in order to ensure the implementation of the International Framework of Action for The Decade, in particular with a view to translating the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation and its Plan of Action into concrete disaster reduction programs and activities.
  315. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heeds of Delegation reiterated their full support to UNEP and call upon for its strengthening as a unique international organization entrusted with the mandate to coordinate the activities dealing with environmental issues and make integrated analysis of the environmental problems in order to fulfil the goal of reaching international consensus concerning the new environmental challenges.
  316. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation took note of the efforts in recent meetings on water and development as well as the iniciatives aiming at mobilizing financial and technical resources in conjunction with the necessary investment efforts for development, management and sustainable use of water in the developing countries.
  317. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the convening of the First Conference of the Parties on Desertification held in Rome, September 29 to October 10 1997, and in supporting the IFAD, which hosts the global mechanism to fully play the principal role in collaboration with UNDP and the World Bank, invited governments, regional integration organizations and other relevant organizations to fulfil their voluntary contributions in order to bring due assistance to the Convention Secretariat and its Subsidiary Organ.

  318. SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES
     
     

  319. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed their full support for the system wide implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States adopted by the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States which was held in Bridgetown, Barbados from 25 April to 6 May 1994. They reaffirmed in particular the need for the provision of adequate, predictable, new and additional financial resources, transfer of environmental sound technologies on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, and the promotion of non-discriminatory trading arrangements. They also noted the need for appropriate exchanges among small island developing states and between them and other States with similar development experiences to be encouraged.
  320. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized the importance of the Barbados Plan of Action in identifying and addressing the problems and vulnerability of the Small Island Developing States and reiterated the call for the support of the international community in the implementation of the Programme of Action. In this regard they welcomed the comprehensive review of the SIDS Programme of Action scheduled for 1999 and the decision of the 19th Special Session of the General Assembly to hold a two-day special in 1999.

  321. SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION
     
     

  322. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that due to new and evolving economic, investment and institutional arrangements among major world economies, South-South cooperation should become a more dynamic part of international development cooperation. They further stressed that increasing globalization, liberalization and interdependence are all making this cooperation more imperative than before. Varying development experiences and know-how in developing countries, as well as similar needs and problems to be solved, offer a unique window of opportunities for greater bilateral, subregional, regional and interregional cooperation among developing countries. The Ministers emphasized that grasping these opportunities will provide a stronger basis for self-reliance and development of developing countries.
  323. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation invited the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries of the United Nations Development Programme, as well as other relevant organizations, taking into account their agreed mandates, work programs and priorities, to jointly undertake further work on formulating concrete recommendations on the follow-up and implementation of the San Jose' Declaration and Plan of Action adopted by the South-South Conference on Trade, Finance and Investment.
  324. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted with satisfaction that in the past few years there has been resurgence in interest in the increased relevance and importance of South-South cooperation, as a strategy in support of the development efforts of the developing countries as a means of ensuring their equitable participation in the emerging global economic order. They emphasized the increasing importance and complementarily of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries as a means of supporting the development efforts of these countries, particularly the least developed and African countries.
  325. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that South-South cooperation should be promoted through the sharing of development experiences, transfer of technology and exploiting the latent synergies and complementarities between Non-Aligned Countries and increasing FDI flows and economic cooperation among them. They expressed their conviction that South-South cooperation constituted an integral and essential part of the efforts of the developing countries to promote economic growth, technological capacities and accelerated development.
  326. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted the recent meetings convened by regional, sub-regional and other groupings of developing countries such as the Group of 77 meetings and the Group of 15 Summit, which took place in Cairo from 12-15 May 1998. In this respect, they emphasized the necessity of creating an international economic environment conducive to the fulfilment of the aims and aspirations of the developing countries.
  327. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also took note of the recently concluded Summit of the Economic Cooperation Organization held in Almaty from 9 to 11 May 1998.
  328. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation strongly favoured holding of a South-South Summit, as called for in the outcome of the South-South Conference on Trade, Investment and Finance held in San Jose, Costa Rica, from 13 to 15 January 1997. They called on Member States to come forward to offer venues for holding of this Summit.
  329. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the need to intensify the process of strengthening the various inter-regional dialogues and the exchange of experiences among subregional and regional economic groupings for the purposes of expanding South-South cooperation through integrating the modalities of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries.
  330. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the recent inauguration of the NAM Centre for South-South Technical Cooperation in Jakarta, Indonesia by the governments of Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam. They acknowledged that the focus of its activities is on the enhancement of people centred development and capitalization of local resources through constructive interaction amongst development actors and partnership in development. Thus, given its vast capacity to carry out various technical programmes, they called on developing and developed countries, as well as international organisations to extend support to the centre by contributing to its future programmes and activities. Furthermore they requested the Centre to coordinate and initiate a cooperative network with other NAM Members for the implementation of their programmes of prominence.
  331. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that South-South cooperation is an essential mechanism for promoting the sustainable economic self-support and in bolstering a new South-South relations by broadening and intensifying economic cooperation among the developing countries.
  332. In the context of the above, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation urged a re-examination of current modalities and mechanisms for South-South cooperation by the Secretariats of regional economic groupings and other relevant institutions with a view to strengthen and readapt these modalities. In the same spirit, they urged to strengthen coordination between the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 in order to effectively promote the interests and positions of developing countries in different multilateral economic negotiations and fora.
  333. The Ministers for Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation supported the Meeting held in Santiago de Chile, November 1997, organized by the Special Unit for TCDC of the United Nations Development Programme. They recognized the importance of the pivotal countries as catalytic agents for promoting the effective participation of developing countries in the emerging global economic system. They stressed the need to promote an exchange of experiences among developing countries for South-South cooperation. Pivotal countries, and any other countries, could share their capacities and experience with other developing countries in such areas as poverty eradication, agriculture, development, forestry, trade promotion, education, health, science and technology.
  334. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation were of the view that the challenges facing the Movement in the area of international economic cooperation would become more complex in the era of globalization and interdependence. They considered that the challenges should be addressed appropriately to seize the opportunities that the globalization could offer. They believed in the need to review the progress achieved by the Movement as well as to develop measures and approaches to meet the challenges in the 21st century. To that end, they decided to convene the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation in 1999 with a view to developing suggestions and recommendations, especially on matters of particular interest to the developing countries.
  335. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegations welcomed the coming into force of the African Economic Community (AEC) at the Inaugural Summit in Harare, Zimbabwe, in July 1997 as an important milestone in the achievement of economic emancipation of Africa. They considered that the Community and its antecedent sub-regional economic organizations, namely, the Economic Community of West African states (ECOWAS), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Monetary Union of West Africa (UMOA), the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the Inter-Government Authority on Development (IGAD), as important mechanisms through which strategies and plans already identified by countries in the region could be effectively implemented to the benefit of African peoples. They, therefore, called on all Africa's partners in development to become more fully engaged with the countries concerned in the process of renewal and revival in which they have embarked upon . They reiterated that such engagement should include concrete and more determined efforts aimed at alleviating the heavy debt burden of the continent, increasing market access for African products and attracting soft loans for their development. On their part, they urged the countries in the region not to relent in their pursuit of economic growth, as well as the current strategy of deepening cooperation with other developing countries in pursuit of the same goal.

  336. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
     
     

  337. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation pointed out that Non-Aligned Countries should intensify the development of communication technology as a means of redressing the continued imbalances and inequalities between developed and developing countries in the field of information and communication. In this context, they reaffirmed that the member countries should enhance the function and network of the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool (NANAP) and Broadcasting Organizations of Non-Aligned Countries (BONAC).
  338. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their appreciation for the efforts of Cyprus Chairmanship of BONAC in promoting the goals of this important organization of the Non-Aligned Countries and accepted the offer of Colombia to assume the Chairmanship as from June 1998.
  339. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled the outcome of the Fifth Conference of Ministers of Information of the Non-Aligned Countries (COMINAC V) held in Abuja in September 1996, which, inter alia, agreed on the need for intensive research efforts by Non-Aligned and other developing countries in the development of communication technology and inter and intra-regional cooperation through NAM mechanisms geared to this end, as a means of redressing the continued imbalances and inequalities between developed and developing countries in the field of information and communication.
  340. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern over the increasing use of defamation and the distortion of information by some mass media of developed countries, such as Radio Free Asia, established in 1996 and Radio Marti to de-stabilize the Governments of Non-Aligned and other developing countries and called for an immediate end to such acts.
  341. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recognized the importance of revitalizing the work of the U.N. system in the field of Information and Informatics, with a view to improving access to the full benefits of the global developments in these areas, particularly for Non-Aligned and developing countries. In this connection, they stressed the need for closer attention by the members of the Movement, as well as by the Group of 77 and China, to the work of the Committee on Information and the Working Group on Informatics.
  342. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation noted with concern the observation made by the Task Force on the reorientation of the UN Public information activities regarding substantial problems that some integrated UN Information Centres have confronted in performing their information and communications functions and requested the United Nations Secretary General to undertake urgently a review of such Centres located in Non-Aligned and other developing countries to rectify the situation. They also emphasized that no changes in resources allocation to the Department of Communication and Public Information of the UN should be done that may impair the ability of the Department to perform its mandated work, particularly the ones in the areas of especial interest to Non-Aligned and other developing countries.

  343. CULTURAL COOPERATION
     
     

  344. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the decisions adopted at the Meeting of the Ministers of Culture of NAM held in Medellin, Colombia, from 3 to 5 September 1997. They further welcomed the steps made by the Government of Egypt for the establishment in Cairo of the Centre for Cultural Cooperation among the Members of the Non-Aligned Movement, pursuant to the final document of the afore mentioned Meeting.
  345. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called for the full implementation of relevant UNESCO resolutions and decisions relating to the restitution of cultural property of peoples formerly under colonial rule and urged the payment of applicable compensation, in accordance to the UN General Assembly Resolution 52/24 which relates to the restoration of Cultural Property to its original countries. They also reaffirmed the right of the Non-Aligned countries to preserve its culture and safeguard its national heritage which are the cornerstones for upholding cultural identity.
  346. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled the results of the First Meeting of Ministers of Culture of NAM who expressed that, on the eve of the 21st century, the Movement has a major responsibility to protect and promote respect for cultural diversity and tolerance, as well as to respect the cultural heritage and diversity of its people, through the process of cultural development and cultural cooperation in the quest for peace and integration.
  347. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called on all member states to participate actively in the 6th Film Festival of Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries, to be held in Pyongyang, D.P.R. of Korea in September 1998, following the decision of the Conference of the Ministers of Culture of Non-Aligned Countries to promote cooperation among member states in the field of culture.

  348. THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN
     
     

  349. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation took note with appreciation of the preparations made by Colombia to host the First Encounter of Children of The Non-Aligned Countries, as adopted in the Plan of Action of the Meeting of Ministers of Culture of NAM. This Encounter will be held in October 1999, in Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia.
  350. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed section E of Chapter IV of the New Delhi Final Document on the Situation on Children, in particular their concern at the intolerable social and economic conditions faced by children and the continued exploitation of children for pornography and prostitution and drug trafficking as well as to the suffering of the refugee and displaced children. They reiterated their call for urgent steps, in particular international cooperation, to address these problems. They also urged all remaining members who had not done so to ratify or accede to the Convention on the Rights of the Child. They called upon to support the work on an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. They urged all countries to put an end to the traditional practices that affect the health of girl-children such as sexual mutilations.
  351. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also expressed deep concern about the difficult situation of many children who are innocent victims of armed conflict in various parts of the world and over the recruitment, organization and employment of children in armed conflicts. In this respect they urged Member States of the Non-Aligned Movement to adopt all necessary measures to put a stop to the use of children as soldiers and to ensure their demobilization and reintegration into society, notably through appropriate education and training carried out in a manner that fosters self respect and dignity, while condemning this inhuman practice. They urged all countries to refrain from recruiting or arming children and called upon them to support the work on an optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
  352. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation urged all members to effectively ban employment of children in hazardous occupations and eliminate child labour through a comprehensive policy including, inter alia, encouragement for sending children to school and retaining them in the educational system through innovative approaches and by eliminating family poverty which is the major cause of child labour.
  353. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed the importance of increasing efforts aimed at helping children who have been or are in situations of armed conflict. In this regard they welcomed the first report of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflict and pledged their support to activities aimed at improving the plight of children in situations of armed conflict.

  354. YOUTH

  355. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation felt that it was essential to promote awareness among youth in Non-Aligned countries of the goals of the Movement and to encourage exchanges and interaction among young people of the Member States. They expressed concern at some of the problems facing young men and women, such as drugs and unemployment. In this context, they urged governments and concerned International Organizations to devote greater efforts to the ten priority areas identified in the World Program of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, namely education, employment, hunger and poverty, health, environment, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, leisure-time activities, girls and young women and the full and effective participation of youth in the life of society.
  356. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the holding of the First World Conference of Ministers Responsible of Youth Affairs in Lisbon, Portugal between 8 and 12 August 1998, and called upon the Non-Aligned and other developing countries to participate actively in the Conference and its preparatory process. They expressed the hope that the Conference will contribute to the further development and implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the year 2000 and beyond.

  357. ELDERLY PEOPLE
     
     

  358. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation urged Non-Aligned and other developing countries to mark the commemoration of the International Year of Elderly People in 1999 and to take concrete measures to deal with the problems of the ageing of the population, the individual and social needs of elderly people and their contributions of the development of society with the view of having a society of all ages.

  359. ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN
     
     

  360. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reaffirmed paragraph 259 of the New Delhi Final Document and paragraph 99 of the Communique of the Meeting of NAM Ministers for Foreign Affairs on 25 September 1997, and in this regard, reiterated the need for a holistic approach through the entire cycle of women and girls, including the empowerment of women and economic independence of women. They pledged themselves to combat all forms of discrimination against women, and to support measures to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against girls and women. They stressed the need to promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective at national levels, including in the design, follow up and evaluation of all policies, as appropriate, in order to ensure effective implementation of the Platform of Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women.
  361. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation were convinced that educational and health programmes need to focus more on women, especially the girl child. In the same vein, the attack on poverty, in particular rural poverty, must take into consideration the special needs of women. Further, to enhance the role of women in the process of development, their increased participation in decision-making at all levels is of cardinal importance. They affirmed that a conducive international environment contributes to and accelerates the achievement of equality between men and women.
  362. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that today major changes in social development patterns including providing possibilities for active participation of women is considered among top priorities for achieving sustainable development. The role of the family unit as an institution which renders the highest degree of material and moral output, is extremely important. On this basis, macro and micro programming or policies should be designed in order to establish the moral and logical relation between the functions of the family and society as a whole as well as harmonize the individual and collective rights of the people.
  363. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their abhorrence on the increasing victimization of women, especially in situations of armed conflict, and the systematic use of rape by the parties to conflicts as an instrument of war, ethnic cleansing and terrorism. They called on countries to take necessary measures against all such perpetrators of violence in order to put an end to all such practices forthwith.

  364. WOMEN AND ARMED CONFLICT
     
     

  365. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed as follows:
    1. An environment that maintains world peace and promotes and protects human rights, democracy and the peaceful settlement of disputes, in accordance with the principles of non-threat or use of force against territorial integrity or political independence and of respect of sovereignty as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, is an important factor for the advancement of women. Peace is inextricably linked with equality between men and women and development. Armed and other types of conflicts and terrorism and hostage-taking still persist in many parts of the world. Aggression, foreign occupation, ethnic and other types of conflicts are an ongoing reality affecting women and men in nearly every region. Gross and systematic violations and situations that constitute serious obstacles to the full enjoyment of human rights continue to occur in different part of the word. Such violations and obstacles include, as well as torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, summary and arbitrary executions, disappearances, arbitrary detentions, all form of detentions, all form of racism and racial discrimination, foreign occupation and alien domination, xenophobia, poverty, hunger and other denial of economic, social and cultural rights, religious intolerance, terrorism, discrimination against women and lack of the rule of the law. International humanitarian law, prohibiting attacks on civilian populations, as such, is at times systematically ignored and human rights are often violated in connection with situations of armed conflict, affecting the civilian population, especially women, children, the elderly and the disabled. Violations of the human rights of women in situations of armed conflict are violations of the fundamental principles of international human rights, especially in the form of genocide, ethnic cleansing as a strategy of war and its consequences, and rape, including systematic rape of women in war situations, creating a mass exodus of refugees and displaced persons, are abhorrent practices that are strongly condemned and must be stopped immediately, while perpetrators of such crimes must be punished. Some of these situations of armed conflict have their origin in the conquest of colonization of a country by another State and the perpetuation of that colonization through State and military repression.
    2. The Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, of 1949, and the Additional Protocols of 1977 provide that women shall especially be protected against any attack on their honour, in particular against humiliating and degrading treatment, rape, enforced prostitution or any form of indecent assault. The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights, states that "violations of the human rights of women in situation of armed conflict are violations of the fundamental principles of international human rights and humanitarian law". All violations of this kind, including in particular murder, rape, including systematic rape, sexual slavery, and forced pregnancy, require a particularly effective response. Gross and systematic violations and situations that constitute serious obstacles to the full enjoyment of human rights continue to occur in different part of the world. Such violations and obstacles include, as well as torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or summary and arbitrary detention, all forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, denial of economic, social and cultural rights and religious intolerance.
    3. Violations of human rights in situations of armed conflict and military occupation are violations of the fundamental principles of international human rights and humanitarian law as embodied in international human rights instruments and in the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols thereto. Gross human rights violations and policies of ethnic cleansing in war-torn and occupied areas continue to be carried out. These practices have created, inter alia, a mass flow of refugees and other displaced persons in need of international protection and internally displaced persons, the majority of whom are women, adolescent girls and children. Civilians victims, mostly women and children, often outnumber casualties among combatants. In addition, women often become caregivers for injured combatants and find themselves, as a result of conflict, unexpectedly cast as sole manager of household, sole parent, and caretaker of elderly relatives.
    4. In a word of continuing instability and violence, the implementation of cooperative approaches to peace and security is urgently needed. The equal access and full participation of women in power structures and their full involvement in all effort for the prevention and resolution of conflicts are essential for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security. Although women have begun to play an important role in conflict resolution, peace-keeping and defence and foreign affairs mechanisms, they are still under represented in decision-making positions. If women are to play an equal part in securing and maintaining peace, they must be empowered politically and economically and represented adequately at all levels of decision making
    5. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed further concern that while entire community suffers the consequences of armed conflict and terrorism, women and girls are particularly affected because of their status in society and their sex. Parties to conflict often rape women with impunity, sometimes using systematic rape as tactic of war and terrorism. The impact of violence against women and violation of the human rights of women in such situations is experienced by women of all ages, who suffer displacement, loss of home and property, loss or involuntary disappearance of close relatives, poverty and family separation and disintegration, and who are victims of acts of murder, terrorism, torture, involuntary disappearance, sexual slavery, rape, sexual abuse forced pregnancy in situations of armed conflict, especially as a result of policies of ethnic cleansing and other new and emerging forms of violence. This is compounded by the life-long social, economic and psychologically traumatic consequences of armed conflict and foreign occupation and alien domination.
    6. Women and children constitute some 80 per cent of the world's millions of refugees and other displaced persons, including internally displaced persons. They are threatened by deprivation of property, goods and services and deprivation of their right to return to their homes of origin as well as by violence and insecurity. Particular attention should be paid to sexual violence against uprooted women and girls employed as a method of persecution in systematic campaigns of terror and intimidation and forcing members of particular ethnic, cultural or religious group to flee their homes. Women may also be forced to flee as a result as a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons enumerated in the 1951 Convention relating to the status of refugees and the 1967 Protocol, including persecution through sexual violence or other gender-related persecutions, and they continue to be vulnerable to violence and exploitation while in flight, in countries of asylum and resettlement and during and after repatriation. Women often experience difficulty in some countries of asylum in being recognized as refugees when the claim is based on such persecution.
    7. Refugee, displaced and migrant women in most case display strength, endurance and resourcefulness and can contribute positively to countries of resettlement or to their country of origin on their return. They need to be appropriately involved in decisions that affect them.
    8. Many women's non-governmental organizations have called for reductions in military expenditures worldwide, as well as in international trade and trafficking in and the proliferation of weapons. Those affected most negatively by conflict and excessive military spending are people living in poverty, who are deprived because of the lack of investment in basic services. Women living in poverty, particularly rural women, also suffer because of the use of arms that are particularly injurious or have indiscriminate effects. There are more than 100 million anti-personnel landmines scattered in 64 countries globally. The negative impact on development of excessive military expenditures, the arms trade, and investment for arms production and acquisition must be addressed. At the same time, maintenance of national security and peace is an important factor for economic growth and development and the empowerment of women.
    9. During times of armed conflict and the collapse of communities, the role of women is crucial. They often work to preserve social order in the midst of armed and other conflicts. Women make an important but often unrecognized contribution as peace educators both in their families and in their societies.
    10. Education to foster a culture of peace that upholds justice and tolerance for all nations and peoples is essential to attaining lasting peace and should be begun at an early age. It should include elements of conflict resolution, meditation, reduction of prejudice and respect for diversity.
    11. In addressing armed or other conflicts, an active policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective into all policies and programs should be promoted so that before decisions are taken an analysis is made of the effects on women and men respectively.
    HUMAN RIGHTS
     
     
  366. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled the significance of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reaffirmed that all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated, that the international community must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing and with the same emphasis, and that while the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be respected, it is the duty of States, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms of all peoples. Furthermore, they also agreed that the transformation and continuing adaptation of human rights machinery, to current and future needs in the promotion and protection of human rights would be the most appropriate way of celebrating the 5Oth anniversary of the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the Vienna Declaration of Programme of Action.
  367. While stressing the indivisible nature of all human rights, the Foreign Ministers made especial emphasis on the importance of the right to development for all peoples, as an universal and inalienable right and as integral part of the fundamental human rights. They welcomed the adoption of resolution 52/136 on the right to development by the UN General Assembly and affirmed that democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. They also affirmed that poverty and social and economic exclusion constitute a violation of human dignity and human rights. It is essential for States to promote efforts to combat extreme poverty and to foster participation by the poorest members of the society in the decision making process.
  368. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern that, since the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development, only a few member states have contributed to its successful implementation and further enhancement. Furthermore, they reaffirmed their trust in the Intergovernmental Working Group on the Right to Development as the appropriate modality for the implementation of the Declaration on the Right to Development.
  369. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation stressed that the human rights issues must be addressed within the global context through a constructive, dialogue based approach, with objectivity, respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, impartiality, non-selectivity and transparency as the guiding principles, taking into account the political, historical, social, religious and cultural characteristics of each country. Exploitation of human rights for political purposes, including selective targeting of individual countries for extraneous considerations which is contrary to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, should be excluded. They emphasized, that coordination of human rights activities must be carried out by United Nations organs, bodies and especially agencies, whose activities deal with human rights, so as to cooperate in order to strengthen, rationalize and streamline those activities, taking into account the need to avoid unnecessary duplication.
  370. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their opposition to decisions by certain powers based on the unacceptable principle of the extra-territorial implementation of national legislation including the use of sanctions, and that are being extended to issues labeled by these powers as "human rights issues" to be used as a pretext to interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign States.
  371. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that every state should provide an effective framework for the protection and promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms in accordance with the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the international covenants on human rights and other relevant international instruments on human rights, as well as a framework of remedies to redress human rights grievances or violations. In this context they reaffirmed the important and constructive role to be played by independent national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights and stressed that every effort should be made for the impartiality and objectivity of the national institutions. They recognized that it is the right of each national institution to choose its framework, in accordance with national legislation.
  372. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation urged States to ensure that their constitutional and internal legal systems, taking into account the respective country conditions, provide effective guarantees for fundamental human rights such as freedom of speech, association, thought, conscience, religion and belief to all without discrimination. They condemned unequivocally all violent acts and activities that infringe upon human rights and fundamental freedoms, democracy, tolerance and respect for diversity.
  373. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation welcomed the adoption of the General Assembly resolution 52/134 entitled "Enhancement of the International Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights" and called for the continuation of consultations on the need to promote international cooperation in the field of human rights through genuine and constructive dialogue on the basis of mutual respect and equality of States.
  374. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation placed special emphasis on the need to rationalize the work of the United Nations human rights machinery with a view to avoiding duplication of mandates through the appointment of special rapporteurs for different matters and for the human rights situation in the countries. While supporting the efforts of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, based on its mandate, they reiterated the necessity of speedy completion of the long overdue mandate of the General Assembly Third Committee Working Group on Human Rights.
  375. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation equally underscored the need for a regional balance in the composition and structure of all entities involved in human rights, particularly the composition of the committees in charge of implementing human rights treaties where Members should be elected on the principles of a balanced geographical distribution and the representation of the basic legal systems.
  376. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled the General Assembly resolution 52/120 entitled "Human Rights and Unilateral Coercive Measures", and re-stressed the fact that human rights should not be used as instruments of political pressure especially against Non-Aligned and other developing countries.
  377. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation unequivocally condemned international terrorism as a criminal act and noted that terrorism endangers the very territorial integrity and security of States, due to acts of terrorism which take place within States, especially those which violate human rights in particular the right of life of all citizens and that destroy the physical and economic infrastructure, and attempt to de-estabilize legitimately constituted governments. They expressed their resolve to take speedy and effective measures to eliminate international terrorism and urged all states to fulfill their obligations under international law, including prosecuting or, where appropriate, extraditing the perpetrators of such acts and preventing the organization and instigation of terrorism against other States from within outside their territories. They reaffirmed their support for General Assembly resolution 46/51 of 27 January 1992 which unequivocally condemned as criminal and unjustifiable all acts, methods and practices of terrorism wherever and by whomever committed and called upon all States to fulfill their obligations under international laws to refrain from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in other State, or acquiescing in or encouraging activities within their territory towards the commissioning of such acts.
  378. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation further called on all States to endorse in principle the convening of an international conference under the auspices of the United Nations, to define terrorism, to differentiate it from the struggle for national liberation and to reach comprehensive and effective measures for concerted action. They also denounced the brutalization of peoples kept under foreign occupation as the gravest form of terrorism. The Ministers condemned the use of state power for the suppression and violence against innocent civilians struggling against foreign occupation to exercise their inalienable right to self-determination. They stressed the sanctity of this right and urged that in this era of enlarged freedom and democracy, people under foreign occupation should be allowed to freely determine their destiny. In this context, they reaffirmed the Movement's principled position that the struggle of people under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for self-determination did not constitute terrorism.
  379. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled General Assembly resolution 50/186 entitled "Human Rights and Terrorism" and renewed their concern at the gross violation of human rights perpetrated by terrorist groups, and reiterated their condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism. They also called for the need to promote and intensify international cooperation in order to implement effective measures against terrorism.
  380. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the need to review and assess the progress made in the field of human rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and to identify obstacles and ways and means through which they can be overcome both by means of measures at the national level and by enhanced international cooperation, with a view to ensuring full enjoyment of all human rights, taking into account developments that have taken place during the past fifty years.

  381. RACISM AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
     
     

  382. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation recalled that opposition to racial discrimination and elimination of all forms of exploitation and inequality have been accorded the highest priority in the agenda of the Movement. The Movement had been in the forefront of the successful struggle against apartheid. The Ministers, however, noted disturbing trends regarding contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. They underlined that migrant workers and their families required special attention in this regard. They urged all States, in particular developed countries, to cooperate more closely with the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related Intolerance, and to take all steps, particularly in the legislative, administrative and educational fields, to combat new forms of racism. They also called upon members to help promote the goals of the Third Decade to combat Racism and Racial Discrimination.
  383. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also underlined the need to convene, as soon as possible and not later than the year 2001, a World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Contemporary Forms of Intolerance and urge all UN Member States to ensure that the Conference designs practical measures to annihilate racism. Furthermore, they urged all countries, especially Non-Aligned and other developing countries to participate actively in the preparatory process as well as in the Conference.
  384. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed serious concern at the acts of violence and the multiplication of such acts which are the manifestation of xenophobia and other forms of contemporary racism and racial discrimination.

  385. INTERNATIONAL DRUG CONTROL
     
     

  386. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated their support for the convening of the Special Session of the UNGA, in 1998, dedicated to the struggle against the illicit production, sale, demand, trafficking, and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and drug related offences. In this regard, they reaffirmed their determination to achieving concrete results on all the objectives set out by the relevant General Assembly resolutions, on the basis of the principle of shared responsibility, and particularly with full respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States and non intervention in internal affairs of States for addressing the demand and supply aspects of drug trafficking.
  387. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that the illicit drug chain begins with the insufficiently controlled trade of the precursory and essential chemical substances for the production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and is completed with the laundering of money through the international financial and commercial channels. Therefore, they considered that, on account of its global nature, the drug problem can only be dealt with effectively through international cooperation based on the principle of shared responsibility in which national measures are articulated with a global, integral, and balanced response to the illegal drugs problems.
  388. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation considered the phenomenon of illicit drugs as a common threat, and called for the commitment of all members of the international community for its solution. They rejected the unbalanced, unequitable and selective form in which some developed countries seek to assign a major responsibility to specific countries, due to political considerations.
  389. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation support the regional and sub-regional cooperation in the fight against drug problems and in this connection welcome the concerted efforts among the signatory countries of the 1993 Memorandum of Understanding on Drug Control in the East Asian sub-region in combating illicit production, consumption and trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances through a balanced and comprehensive approach and commend their initiative to establish an operation network to combat drug crimes through intelligence sharing and harmonized policies.
  390. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation also welcomed the Hemispheric Anti Drug Strategy within the framework of the Organization of American States (CAS), to establish an objective procedure for the multilateral evaluation of actions and cooperation to prevent and combat all aspects of the drug problem and related crimes, based on the principles of sovereignty territorial integrity of States, shared responsibility, and with a comprehensive and balanced approach.
  391. Since poverty underlies illicit crop cultivation, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called for enhanced international cooperation for alternative development programmes and for environmental rehabilitation in the areas of illicit crop cultivation.
  392. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation called for the adoption of effective measures to restrict the smuggling of guns which is linked to the drug trade and which is generating unacceptable levels of crime and violence affecting the national security and the economies of many States.
  393. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation adopted the attached Declaration on the Special Session of the General Assembly on Drugs.

  394. HEALTH
     
     

  395. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the close relation between poverty and health, and conscious that the objectives of the Health for All program stressed in Alma-Ata will not be attained in a great number of Non-Aligned countries by the year 2000, expressed the need to ensure in the next century the achievement of the goal of health for all. They recognized the need for a more coordinated action among the Non-Aligned countries and to this end they expressed their full support to holding a NAM meeting of Ministers of Health at Havana, Cuba, 25 to 26 June, 1998, and emphasized the need for effective participation in this meeting.
  396. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern at the situation in which a large proportion of the developing world's population has not guaranteed access to essential drugs, and where poor quality pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products continued to be traded internationally and requested the Meeting of Ministers of Health of Non Aligned Countries at Havanna, Cuba 25 - 26 June 1998, to share their experiences on access to essential drugs and to further examine the issue and suggest remedial action. They further expressed their concerns that new international agreements and other factors may have repercussions on local manufacturing capacity and the equitable access to, and prices of, pharmaceutical products in developing countries. They urged the international community to ensure that public health, rather than commercial interests, are paramount in pharmaceutical and health policies, and further to examine options to ensure access by developing country populations to essential drugs.

  397. HUMANITARIAN ACTION
     
     

  398. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation underlined the importance of promoting the respect for the universally recognized humanitarian principles and for the international humanitarian law, particularly those of the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their 1977 Additional Protocols. They invited those States which have not yet done so to ratify or accede to the two Protocols additional to the Geneva Convention of 1949.
  399. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation considered it essential to make a distinction among humanitarian action and UN peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations as well as operational activities for development. In order to pursue the independence, neutrality and the impartiality of humanitarian action, such action must be kept distinct from, and independent of political or military action, in accordance with the respective mandates while ensuring the observance of international humanitarian laws.
  400. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation reiterated that humanitarian assistance is not an alternative to development assistance and does not offer durable solution of those problems that are at the origin of the need to grant emergency assistance. In this context, they stated that financial, material and human resources devoted to emergency assistance should not be taken from those geared at development assistance.

  401. INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
     
     

  402. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their concern over the emergence of stringent immigration policies in various developed countries which severely restrict the free movement of people and breed xenophobia. They also expressed deep concern over new immigration laws and regulations recently adopted by some developed countries which could lead to massive deportations of immigrants from Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries in violation of their fundamental human rights. They called upon those developed countries to take fully into account the social and economic effects those deportations would have on the affected developing countries, particularly those facing high debt burdens and high unemployment situations. The Ministers emphasized that due attention be accorded to migrants and their families in the developed countries as per relevant international instruments. They also encouraged all countries, especially the Members of the Non-Aligned Movement, to become parties to the United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. They also called upon the developed countries to ensure the protection of immigrants and their families from all kinds of racism, discrimination and violence.
  403. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation expressed their profound gratitude to the people and Government of Colombia for their warm hospitality and commended them for their efficient organization of this successful Ministerial Meeting of the Bureau of NAM. They expressed their appreciation in particular to H.E. Dr. Emesto Samper Pizano, President of Colombia and Chairman of the NAM, for his inspiring statement at the inaugural session which served as a guidance to the Movement on its deliberations and decisions in this Meeting, as well as for his leadership of NAM since the XI Summit also held in Cartagena do Indias in 1995.
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 DRAFT DECLARATION ON THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL SESSION
ON INTERNATIONAL DRUG CONTROL BY THE MINISTERIAL MEETING
OF THE COORDINATING BUREAU OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT

 The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegations of the Non-Aligned Movement gathered at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on the occasion of the Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement, on May 19 and 20, 1998.

Renewing the commitments agreed to by our Heads of State and/or Heads of Government during the Summit Meeting at Cartagena de Indias, in October 1995, and

Reaffirming the agreements reached during the XII Ministerial Conference held in New Delhi in April 1997, as well as the contents of the Communiqué issued by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs during the meeting held in New York on the occasion of the 52nd United Nations General Assembly, on September 25, 1997,
 

  1. Welcome the celebration during the month of June this year of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to the Fight against Illicit Production, Sale, Demand, Traffic and Distribution of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and related activities;
  2. Express our strong determination of participate at an appropriate high level and with a spirit of mutual cooperation in the deliberations of the Special Session, recognizing the grave consequences of the world drug problem for the health and welfare of mandkind as well as its negative effects on society, the democratic institutions and the stability of nations;
  3. Strongly reaffirm that international actions to counter the world drug problem are a common and shared responsibility to be carried out on the basis of an integrated and balanced approach, with full respect for the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-interference in the internal affairs of States;
  4. Condemn unilateral mechanisms to evaluate progress in the fight against illicit drugs and the application of coercive measures against the Non-Aligned member countries, and express support for multilateral arrangements through the existing United Nations organs;
  5. Declare our commitment to work jointly with all other countries in the formulation of action-oriented international strategies for drug demand reduction, control of chemical precursors for the illicit manufacture of drugs, prevention of money laundering, as well as measures to eliminate or significantly reduce illicit crops and to promote alternative development programmes;
  6. Request financial and technical resources by the United Nations International Drug Control Programme, the World Bank, regional banks and developed countries in support of viable projects of alternative development in the areas of illicit crop cultivation, with a view to create self-sustaining rural communities and facilitate their integration into the national economy;
  7. Call upon all Non-Aligned countries to strengthen cooperation among judicial and law enforcement authorities and to increase the exchange of information leading to the identification, freezing, seizure and confiscation of the proceeds of crime.
  8. Call upon the Non-Aligned countries which have not done so, to become parties to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drug of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988, and in this respect, to adopt the national legislation and policy measures necessary for the full implementation of these conventions;
  9. Extend our support for the work of the United Nations and its drug-control organs, in particular the Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board, and call for strengthening their functioning in accordance with relevant international conventions;
  10. Note with great concern the escalating levels of violence generated by armed bands of drug traffickers, terrorist organizations and other such criminal organizations involved in the international traffic and sale of drugs;
  11. Note with alarm the increased production, traffic and consumption of synthetic drugs, in particular amphetamine-type stimulants, a phenomenon which poses potentially serious effects for the social integration and development in the Non-Aligned countries;
  12. Reaffirm the need for all Non-Aligned countries to combat the socio-economic conditions bearing upon the world drug problem, such as the lack of equal economic opportunities, unemployment, social marginalization and loss of ethical and family values;
  13. Call on the national authorities of the Non-Aligned countries dealing with youth affairs to promote educational programmes conveying the grave risks for personal well-being and negative impact on family values and social integration resulting from drug abuse: Youth must be provided with the treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers as well as to their incorporation into society;
  14. Declare our resolve to extend all possible assistance and support to national programmes dealing with the treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers as well as to their incorporation into society;
  15. Express out utmost confidence in the successful work of the coming Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly and resolve to contribute our best efforts to create viable arrangements for international cooperation in the fight against drugs, mindful of the great many lives lost on this account during the last two decades of this century.
Cartagena de Indias, May 20, 1998.
 

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 DRAFT DECLARATION ON THE UNITED NATIONS DIPLOMATIC
CONFERENCE OF PLENIPOTENTIARIES ON THE
ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
BY THE MINISTERIAL MEETING OF THE COORDINATING
BUREAU OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT

 The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegations of the Non-Aligned Movement gathered at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on the occasion of the Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement, on May 19 and 20, 1998,

Recognizing the significance of the Diplomatic Conference on the establishment of an International Criminal Court to be held in Rome, from 15 June to 17 July 1998,

Reiterate the need to ensure that the Court should be impartial and independent, especially from political influence of any kind, including that of the UN organs, in particular the Security Council, which should not direct or hinder the functioning of the Court nor assume a parallel or superior role to the Court. In this regard, underscore the need to set up a suitable mechanism for the financing of the Court in order to safeguard its effectiveness, independence and impartiality.

Reaffirm the basic principle of respect for the sovereignty of States and emphasize that of the UN organs, in particular the Security Council, which should not direct or hinder the functioning of the Court nor assume a parallel or superior role to the Court. In this regard, underscore the need to set up a suitable mechanism for the financing of the Court in order to safeguard its effectiveness, independence and impartiality.

Reaffirm the basic principle of respect for the sovereignty of States and emphasize that the jurisdiction of the Court should be complementary to national jurisdictions and be based on the consent of the States concerned. Underline that the principle of complementarity is a fundamental principle and shall, therefore, be reflected and observed with respect to all the provisions governing the Court.

Note that the statute of the Court should include the heinous crimes of international concern and in this regard strongly support the inclusion of the crime of aggression and, among war crimes, the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons.

Cognizant of the universal character of the Court and the need to observe democratic principles in negotiation procedures, underline the need to ensure equitable geographical representation in the constituent bodies of the Rome Conference.

Underline the importance of the universal character of the Court and emphasize that the adoption of the Statute by consensus would be the best method of guaranteeing the achievement of this objective and facilitating its early entry into force.

Further emphasize that decision making on substantive matters should be on the basis of the largest majority of the participating States at the Conference.

Underscore that the Statute needs to be ratified by reasonably high number of States so as to reflect the universal character of the Court.

Finally, encourage the active participation of member of NAM in the Rome Conference and emphasize the need for coordination among member States prior to and during the Conference in order to formulate common positions inspired by NAM values and principles.

Cartagena de Indias, May 20, 1998.
 

CB/MM-Doc.8.Rev.1


 

 A MESSAGE FROM CARTAGENA DE INDIAS

 We, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Heads of Delegation of the countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, gathered on the shores of the Caribbean Sea, in the heroic city of Cartagena de Indias, World's Heritage and Pearl of the Americas,

Reaffirm the unity and cohesion of the Non-Aligned Movement as the highest political forum of the developing world and the most effective mechanism of dialogue between NAM members with the industrialized countries and other actors of the international community, in the face of the challenges of a changing world.

Express our appreciation to the President of Colombia, his Excellency Ernesto Samper Pizano, for his active and successful leadership of the Movement since 1995. That leadership has shown that with the end of the cold war the Movement has grown in stature and has come to play an increasingly important role in every forum in the world, in particular within the UN system and in the direct and frank dialogue initiated with the Group of Seven on economic issues.

Cartagena de Indias will be a symbol of the strength, unity and autonomy of the Non-Aligned Movement. We wish to express our thanks and appreciation to the people of Colombia, to its authorities and to the kind people of Cartagena, for their hospitality over these years.

Cartagena de Indias, 20 May 1998