THE FINAL DOCUMENT OF THE XIITH SUMMIT
2-3 SEPTEMBER 1998, DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA
CHAPTER I: GLOBAL ISSUESReview of the International Situation
The Role of the Non-Aligned Movement
Dialogue between Civilisations
Agenda for Peace
Strengthening, Restructuring, Revitalisation and Democratisation of the United Nations
United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
Financial Situation of the United Nations
The Right to Self-Determination
Disarmament and International Security
Law of the Sea
Peaceful Settlement of Disputes
Culture of Peace
CHAPTER II: ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATIONPalestine and the Middle East
- Syrian Golan
- The Peace Process
- Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean
- Western Sahara
- Sierra Leone
- Chagos Archipelago
- Guinea Bissau
- The Situation between Iraq and Kuwait
- Korean Peninsula
- South-East Asia
- Guyana and Venezuela Controversy
CHAPTER III: ECONOMIC ISSUESThe New Context of International Economic Cooperation
Agenda for Development
International Trade and Commodities
Financial, Investment and Monetary Issues
Food and Agriculture
Environment and Development
Science and Technology
Information and Communication
Critical Economic Situation in Africa
Least Developed Countries
Land-Locked Developing Countries
Small Island Developing States
CHAPTER IV: SOCIAL ISSUESSocial Development
Education and Culture
Population and Development
Internal Migration and Development
Racism and Racial Discrimination
Advancement of Women
Women and Armed Conflict
Humanitarian Problems, Refugees, Repatriated and Internally Displaced Persons
The Situation of Children
International Drug Control
- The Heads of State or Government of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries met in Durban, South Africa from 2 - 3 September 1998, to address crucial global issues affecting their peoples with the view to agreeing to a set of actions in the promotion of peace, security and development, conducive to a new system of international relations based on the principles of justice, equality and democracy.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the work done by the Movement in the period since the XIth Summit, and decided to pronounce themselves on the following issues of concern to the Movement.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their appreciation at the adoption by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Cartagena Document on Methodology, May 14 - 16 1996 and affirmed the need to adhere to the guidelines therein set.
GLOBAL ISSUES: REVIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised that even when the spectre of a nuclear holocaust seemed more remote than in the recent past and several countries had resolved to reduce their military budgets in order to devote such resources to meet the social and economic development requirements of their people, great powers continue to endanger the future of humankind through the unjustified stockpiling and development of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and a rampant traffic in armaments continues to put in jeopardy the security and stability of vast regions of the world.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised that the world today is still far from being a peaceful, just and secure place. Simmering disputes, violent conflicts, aggression and foreign occupation, interference in the internal affairs of States, policies of hegemony and domination, ethnic strife, religious intolerance, xenophobia, new forms of racism and narrowly conceived nationalism are, inter alia, major and dangerous obstacles to harmonious coexistence among States and peoples and have even led to the disintegration of States and societies.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the adverse external economic environment that continue to impact negatively upon the economies of the developing countries. The exports of these countries continue to be hampered by all forms of protectionism and their development efforts remain impaired by inordinate burdens of external indebtedness and restricted and volatile short-term financial flows, which have resulted in an overall net transfer of resources to the developed countries, and by a lack of adequate access to technology.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that some States seek to unilaterally impose their policies, cultural and social criteria on developing countries and to exercise their power and influence in international organisations and agencies. The experience of the member states of NAM indeed show that some powerful members of the international community continue to insist on accepting their models, perceptions and norms set by them to perpetuate their privileges, as standards for universal behaviour. Moreover, attempts are increasingly being made to use the United Nations to this end. Consequently, countries of the Non-Aligned Movement are increasingly the object of unilateral or multilateral interventionism in their internal affairs under various pretexts. In this connection, they agreed that it is important to express solidarity with any member of the Movement who is a victim of economic coercive measures, interference in internal affairs, use or threat of use of military power, isolation and discrimination, imposed in opposition to principles of the NAM and the Charter of the United Nations.
- The Heads of State and Government reaffirmed the NAM principles and the sanctity of the United Nations Charter and reiterated their firm condemnation of all unilateral military actions or threats of military action against the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of the members of the Movement which constitute acts of aggression and blatant violations of the principle of non-intervention and non-interference. In this context they strongly condemned the policies and practices of those who had targeted some NAM member-states for unilateral military actions.
- The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the collapse of the bipolar system, while raising hope for ensuring a universal, just and durable peace that are yet to be fulfilled, have resulted in a worrisome and damaging uni-polarity in political and military terms that is conducive to further inequality and injustice and, therefore, to a more complex and disquieting world situation. They felt that this fact has been acknowledged in positions taken even by countries outside the NAM, and emphasised that the Member States of NAM should work further towards the establishment of a new system of international relations characterised by an absence of want, fear and all forms of intolerance, and based on peace, justice, equality, democracy and full respect for principles enshrined in the United Nations Charter and international law. In this context, they reaffirmed their conviction that the Movement should continue to play an active and effective role in the attainment of that objective.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised that Cold War era legacies such as foreign occupation, foreign military bases, the use or threat of use of force, pressure, interference in internal affairs and sanctions inconsistent with international law, still constitute a main disturbing factor to establishing fair and equitable international relations conforming with the strong desire of the overwhelming majority of governments and peoples and emphasised the need to continue with their consolidated efforts for the removal of such legacies.
- The Heads of State or Government were also of the view that these circumstances compel the Movement more than ever to work towards cooperation and a sense of full partnership in the international field, for the promotion of peace and social and economic development.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need to protect and promote the principles and objectives of the independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of States, the attainment of general and complete disarmament under effective international control, the right of peoples under colonial or other forms of alien domination or foreign occupation to realise their right to self-determination, equality among nations, full respect for international law, pacific settlement of disputes, the democratisation of international relations, economic and social development, an equitable international economic order, the development of human resources, the protection and promotion of all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, and the coexistence of different systems, cultures and societies. In this context, they emphasised the need for the pursuit of their objectives through a dynamic adaptation to the new realities and the promotion of a more just and equitable system of international relations, as well as through the articulation of appropriate strategies, initiatives and projects.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that while the end of the Cold War should have brought greater attention and concern to economic and social development issues on the part of the international community, they had not yet reached the pre-eminence that was required nor the degree of commitment necessary to resolve the serious problems faced by countries such as those of the Movement. In fact, in recent years, there had been a decline in resources made available for international development cooperation. The emergence of the market-based paradigm of development had also been accompanied by efforts to shift the entire onus for international development cooperation to the private sector. They reaffirmed the role of the State in development and in international cooperation for development.
- Furthermore, the Heads of State or Government had noticed the emergence of a trend in developed countries to ignore their past commitments and to marginalise financing of development from international negotiations, to introduce new conditionalities and to erode and distort long-standing concepts to the detriment of Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries. They therefore stressed the need for the Movement to ensure an active presence in international economic and commercial negotiations, with strong, concerted and common positions.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined that the international situation continued to be very fluid. The climate of uncertainty persisted. The tendency to focus attention primarily on the interests and concerns of a limited number of developed countries continued, while recent commitments made in some major areas of international cooperation remained unfulfilled. The interests of the developing countries continued to be marginalised. Private foreign investment tended to be concentrated in a few developing countries and a few sectors, and a significant part of these flows was speculative and volatile in nature. The social and economic infrastructure in the developing countries was lagging behind, constraining growth prospects. It was imperative that this state of affairs be rectified as a matter of priority. The fundamental requirement of development must be reflected in the new priorities of international cooperation.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the fact that the gap between the developed and developing countries, especially the LDC's, continued to widen, and reiterated that the problems deriving from poverty and social injustices, far from being overcome, had been significantly aggravated. They expressed particular concern over the economic situation in LDC's, the majority of which were located in Africa. They noted further that economic underdevelopment, poverty and social injustice constituted a source of frustration and a cause of new conflicts, and that stability, security, democracy and peace could not be consolidated without rectifying the growing international inequalities. They therefore felt that there was an urgent need to regenerate the economies of the LDC's in order to achieve sustained growth and sustainable development, including through the full and effective implementation of the special measures incorporated in the Programme of Action for the 1990's for the LDC's.
- The Heads of State or Government particularly emphasised that the high social cost of the structural adjustment and opening up of the economies of the countries of the Movement should not be borne by developing countries alone, especially the poorest sectors of their population. It was the developed countries that have derived the greatest benefits from this change in the world economy, while the alarming concentration of wealth in a few hands, a consequence of the unbridled market economy, heralded social instability. Therefore they found it unacceptable that rich and powerful nations continued to establish unilateral conditionalities on open trade, a concept which they themselves promoted, to gain advantages from the countries of the Movement, or what was even worse, to impose standards or push through stances intended to satisfy their internal political needs. They declared that to demand from the countries of the Movement the opening up of their economies while imposing restrictions and tariff obstructions on their products is a morally reprehensible conduct.
- The Heads of State or Government pointed out that the globalisation of the world economy, aided by the revolution in communications and data processing, had created new challenges and opportunities. However, this globalisation process had translated itself into an increased marginalisation for the majority of the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government in this context, underlined that the prevalence of neo-liberal policies placed an even larger strain on the economies of Non-Aligned and other developing countries and stressed the need to enhance the role of developing countries in the international economy.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that while the benefits of the deepening interdependence amongst economies were clearly manifested in the developed countries, they had been fragile in the case of the developing countries as a whole. They therefore called for the implementation of measures by the international community to create a more balanced and participatory system of international economic relations in which such interdependence would benefit all nations.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that all nations have the inalienable right to freely establish their own political and economic systems and take measures to safeguard their security on the basis of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, including respect for the principles of national sovereignty, territorial integrity, self-determination and non-interference in the internal affairs of others.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their serious concern over the tendency on the part of the developed countries to forge broad fronts against developing countries with a view to exerting economic pressures for securing their strategic and political objectives. In this context, they opposed the imposition of sanctions in blatant disregard of the UN Charter and the mandates of the international financial institutions.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned the continued enactment by certain countries of extra- territorial legislation, and their imposition of unilateral coercive economic measures against certain developing countries, with a view to preventing these countries from the exercise of their right to determine, with their total free will, their own political, economic and social system. They called on all States not to recognise the unilateral, extra- territorial laws enacted by certain countries which impose sanctions on companies and individuals belonging to other countries, since such legislation is contrary to the norms of international law, and the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their satisfaction at the important role that the General Assembly exert in maintaining international peace and security in accordance with Resolution 377 of the General Assembly of 3 November 1950, entitled: "Uniting for Peace", which led to the convening of the Tenth Emergency Special Session on "Illegal Israeli actions in occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the occupied Palestinian territory" as called for by the XIIth Ministerial Conference of the Movement.
- In this regard, the Heads of State or Government welcomed with appreciation the most recent decisions adopted by the General Assembly to strengthen and revitalise its role as the highest deliberative and decision-making organ of the United Nations, in which all Member States participate equally. In particular, they cited the decisions related to the consideration by the General Assembly of the Reports of other main organs, especially the Report of the Security Council to the General Assembly and the Report of the Secretary General on the work of the Organisation, as an important step towards a more balanced and sustained interaction between the General Assembly and these organs. Nevertheless, proposals to erode or weaken the comprehensive mandate of the General Assembly and actions geared at preventing it from fulfilling the leading role assigned to it by the United Nations Charter are totally unacceptable.
THE ROLE OF THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the Non-Aligned countries' commitment to respect the principles and objectives of Non-Alignment and expressed their determination to make every effort to further strengthen the Non-Aligned Movement's capacity for action and to develop concrete modalities to enhance the influence and impact of its decisions on world affairs.
- The Heads of State or Government believed that it is imperative for the movement to fulfil its aims and objectives as a fundamental contribution to the development, peace and well-being of its Member States. In that regard, they underscored the need to realistically consider the Movement's priorities in a dramatically-changing global setting, where the threats to the security, stability and development prospects of Non-Aligned and other developing countries have become increasingly acute. In this context, the solidarity and unity among NAM countries should continue to be strengthened if the opportunities and challenges of globalisation and the dangers of the current world situation are to be efficiently faced. Priority should continue to be attached by the international community to development cooperation and equitable international economic relations. It is imperative for the Movement to set achievable priority areas for South-South Cooperation as part of a strategy to give renewed impetus to international cooperation for development.
- The Heads of State or Government, reaffirming their faith and commitment to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, stressed the necessity for further cooperation in strengthening the important role played by the Non-Aligned countries within the United Nations, which more than ever should be increased.
- The Heads of State or Government agreed to evolve a mechanism for the enhancement of the role of the NAM in conformity with changes in the international situation, so that the movement as spokesman representing the interests and aspirations of Non-Aligned and other developing countries, will be able to respond effectively and expeditiously to the challenges raised in a new millennium, on the basis of common positions agreed by members.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their appreciation to the members of the Ad-Hoc Panel of Economists of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries who, in accordance with the mandate given by the XIIth Ministerial Conference held in New Delhi, prepared an assessment of the current international economic situation from the perspective of the developing countries, in order to assist in developing a positive agenda of the South and, accordingly, reported to the XIIth Summit of the Movement, held in South Africa.
- In connection with the formulation of a pro-active economic agenda for the South, the Heads of State or Government noted the proceedings of the Roundtable on the Report of the NAM Ad-Hoc Panel of Economists. They also welcomed the Report of the Moderator on the Roundtable and the summary of the way forward contained in the Report. In particular, they agreed that South Africa, as the current Chair, carry out consultations with Member States, including through the Coordinating Bureau in New York, members of the panel and other relevant experts to develop a proposal, including practical steps to devise a precise economic agenda for the South, which should be presented to the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation during the first half of 1999.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with regards to the tasks performed by the NAM Troika to enhance the role of the Movement and promote dialogue with the developed countries. In this regard, they underlined the importance of the full participation of all members of the Movement through the NAM Coordinating Bureau, in shaping the mandate and agenda of Troika meetings. They also agreed on the timely reporting of the outcome of these meetings to the Coordinating Bureau.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the importance of the message conveyed by the President of Colombia as the Chairman of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries, to the Group of Eight in keeping with the mandate contained in "The Call from Colombia", adopted by the Heads of State or Government at the Eleventh Summit and as elaborated in the final document of the XIIth Ministerial meeting held in New Delhi. They emphasised how important it is for the Movement to continue its consultations with the G-8 with a view to promote a meaningful and productive dialogue so as to reach better understanding and to respond more positively to the development aspirations of the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the mandate of the Cartagena Final Document of the Eleventh Conference of the Heads of State or Government on the Non-Aligned Countries, and reiterated the need for the Movement to enhance its unity and cohesion and coordinate positions of Member Countries towards major international issues, with the view to strengthening their negotiating leverage vis-à-vis developed countries.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that coordination was one of the bases of the Movement of Non-Aligned Countries and they called for the holding of joint NAM actions in the context of important international conferences and meetings as a means of furthering NAM's positions and aspirations in all fields of international relations.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the leading role of the Coordinating Bureau and commended the work carried out by its working groups on various fields in New York. They were of the view that those working groups should continue and expand their activities and that new working groups should be created as necessary with the increasing complexities in the work of the UN.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised that in order for the Movement to enhance its role at the international level, it must continue to work on expanding and reinforcing its ability and capacity for initiative, representation and negotiation, as well as its ethical, political and moral strength as the principal forum representing the interests and aspirations of the developing world. In this regard, they reaffirmed that full respect for the founding principles of the Movement adopted in Bandung (1955) and the principles set forth in the United Nations Charter is its irrevocable political and moral commitment. They considered that the role of the Movement in the attainment of its objectives hinge upon the solidarity of its members, its unity and cohesion, founded on a culture of peace and development, and require joint efforts to overcome areas of disagreement and resolve differences in a peaceful manner.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to strongly resist and take a unified stand against policies and practices predicated on power politics and hegemony including the pursuit of unilateralism through military or economic coercion, and resolved to defend the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of members of the Movement.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the important and positive role played by the Joint Coordination Committee of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 (JCC) over the past few years in advancing common positions of the developing countries on different global issues. They were of the view that such contacts should be further strengthened and increased in order to harmonise the efforts and activities with a view to avoiding duplication and bringing greater coherence and consolidation to the unity and promotion of common interests on various global issues as well as in furthering greater interaction among the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government decided to convene a working group entrusted with the task of defining and preparing by mid-1999 a complete plan of action for the Movement, on the basis of the decisions taken by the XIIth Summit, which will be in force up to the XIIIth Summit in the year 2001. They decided further that the working group would report to the Ministerial Meeting on Methodology through Coordinating Bureau.
- The Heads of State or Government underscored the role of NAM in furthering economic growth and development of the Non-Aligned Countries and expressed their determination to promote programmes of economic and technical cooperation among its members. In this context, they were of the view that new economic and technical cooperation programmes should be realistic and concentrated in fields of common interest that would allow the enhancement of scarce resources and provide an aggregate value of interest to all NAM countries.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that solidarity among its members is a must for the Movement, mainly when NAM countries are threatened from abroad through acts of aggression, the threat to use force or unilateral coercive measures, all of which are, by nature, contrary to the principles of the Movement and of international law. In this regard, they expressed their rejection of attempts by any Member State to take a position in contradiction to the principles and objectives of the Movement at the instigation of outside forces, which negatively affect the unity and solidarity of the Movement.
DIALOGUE BETWEEN CIVILISATIONS
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at attempts to suggest divisions between cultures and civilisations, and reiterated that despite conflict and war throughout human history, positive interaction and fusion between cultures and civilisations have continued for the benefit of all humanity, and expressed their resolve to facilitate and promote enhanced dialogue between cultures and civilisations at the turn of the millennium.
- The Heads of State or Government hoped that the next millennium would offer an opportunity to conduct a North-South dialogue based on the mutuality of interest and benefits, shared responsibilities and genuine interdependence. Therefore, recognising the importance of North-South partnership and dialogue, they called on the developed countries to engage in constructive dialogue and partnership with the South. They emphasised that this dialogue and partnership should encompass the strengthening of intergovernmental cooperation, including the need to achieve the necessary coherence of policies of multilateral institutions.
- The Heads of State or Government underscored the importance of North-South dialogue and partnership for the mobilisation of human and material resources for the elimination of global inequalities among States, taking fully into account the interest of the developing countries.
AGENDA FOR PEACE
- The Heads of State or Government observed that efforts should continue to be made, taking into account the interests of all members of the Movement, to evolve a common position on the elements of "An Agenda for Peace" and its Supplement. They recognised that the principles of the UN Charter and international law were applicable to the elements contained in an Agenda for Peace and its Supplement.
- The Heads of State or Government underscored the need for the United Nations to implement immediately the decisions as contained in the annexes to Resolution A51/242 of the General Assembly, particularly in the area of sanctions imposed by the United Nations. They also underlined the request made to the President of the General Assembly to consult on the possibility of continuing the activities of the informal Open-Ended Working Group on An Agenda for Peace in the areas of Post-Conflict Peace-Building and Preventive Diplomacy and Peace-Making on the basis of the work already accomplished in these areas and with a view to concluding its work.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled that the imposition of sanctions is an issue of serious concern for Non-Aligned Countries. They reaffirmed that the imposition of sanctions in accordance with the Charter should be considered only after all means of peaceful settlement of disputes under Chapter VI of the Charter has been exhausted and a thorough consideration undertaken of the short and long-term effects of such sanctions. Sanctions are a blunt instrument, the use of which raise fundamental ethical questions of whether suffering inflicted on vulnerable groups in the target country are legitimate means of exerting pressure. The objectives of sanctions is not to punish or otherwise exact retribution.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the objectives of sanctions regimes should be clearly defined. Sanctions should be lifted as soon as the objectives are achieved. They should be imposed for a specified time-frame and based on tenable, legal grounds. The conditions demanded of the country or party on which sanctions are imposed should be clearly defined and subject to periodic review. Attempts to impose or to prolong the application of sanctions to achieve political ends should be rejected.
- The Heads of State or Government also reiterated that all sanctions regimes must contain specific and appropriate measures to ensure that humanitarian supplies reach the affected, innocent populations. Efforts must also made to ensure that the development capacity of the target country is not adversely affected by sanction regimes.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that the functioning of the Sanctions Committee require further improvement. In this context the Ministers welcomed the proposals that had been made by NAM in the Sub-group on Sanctions of the Open-Ended Working Group of the General Assembly on an Agenda for Peace. They called upon the Coordinating Bureau to pursue efforts to have those proposals implemented.
- The Heads of State or Government underscored the need to operationalise Article 50 of the Charter, particularly by establishing a mechanism, including a Fund, to provide relief to third countries affected by UN sanctions.
- The Heads of State or Government further expressed concern over the increasing use of the term "preventive action" in the absence of an agreed definition or understanding of this term, as well as inadequate clarification of its implications on UN activities and resources. They urged that the General Assembly develop guidelines for the UN on this matter.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that, without prejudice to the competence of the other principal organs of the United Nations' respective roles in Post-Conflict Peace Building (PCPB) activities, the General Assembly must have the key role in the formulation of PCPB activities. In this regard, they recognised as well the importance of the concerted actions of international agencies to support actively national programs for reconstruction and rehabilitation, including the promotion of a culture of peace which paves the way for the achievement of economic and social development.
STRENGTHENING, RESTRUCTURING, REVITALISATION AND DEMOCRATISATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
- The Heads of State or Government noted the decisions adopted by the General Assembly with regard to the reform proposals presented by the Secretary General in his report: "Renewing the United Nations: A Program for Reform". They underscored the constructive and flexible attitude shown by the members of the Non-Aligned Movement while in the process of discussion of the above-mentioned decisions.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the importance of reinforcing the United Nations for the challenges of the new millennium and in this context stressed the need to keep under close intergovernmental oversight and review the implementation of the decisions adopted by the General Assembly in its resolutions 52/12 A and B with regards to the reform proposals presented by the Secretary General in his report, "Renewing the United Nations: A Program for Reform", as well as a continuous assessment of their implications. While implementing those decisions, they also stressed the need to take into account the views expressed by Member States during the process of consideration of those decisions, including those subjects and aspects where the overwhelming majority coincided in formulating precise and clear guidelines.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that the success of reforms could only be judged by real improvements in the functioning of the UN and its ability to make its impact felt on the lives of all people, especially the citizens of the developing countries. They stressed that any further efforts regarding United Nations reform should focus on strengthening the role of the Organisation in the promotion of development. In this regard, they stressed that in conjunction with the Group of 77, they welcomed the establishment of a post of Deputy Secretary General with the duty of striving for a "more visible and distinguished role of the United Nations in the economic and social spheres, including the on-going efforts to re-enforce the work of the United Nations as a main centre for politics of development, as well as for assistance for development."
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the reform process should preserve the centrality and sanctity of the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and General Assembly mandates. The process should also enable the organisation to meet the challenges of contemporary times. In this regard, they reiterated the importance of the General Assembly as the main elaborative and decision-making organ of the United Nations in which all member states participate equally. They stressed that any reform proposals challenging the importance of the General Assembly would be unacceptable.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the concern expressed at the XIIth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, at the weakening of the role and functioning of the General Assembly, the principal organ of the United Nations in which all member states are represented, and called for the restoration of the balance between its role and that of the Security Council, as mandated in the UN Charter. In this context, the due accountability of the Security Council to the General Assembly should be encouraged. They also noted the conclusion of work of the Open-ended Working Group on the Strengthening of the UN System, and called for the full implementation of the recommendations as contained in the annex to General Assembly resolution 51/241.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that the proposals of the Secretary General requiring further consideration by the General Assembly should be discussed through an open and transparent procedure, and not be subjected to any imposed time-frame. In this regard, all delegations should have the opportunity to participate effectively in discussions and negotiations on all proposals.
- The Heads of State or Government discussed the proposal of the Secretary General regarding time limits for new initiatives and/or future mandates of the United Nations and, in this regard, stressed the urgent need for the General Assembly to undertake a thorough and continuing examination and assessment of the proposal in all its aspects, notably its impact on the programmes and activities of the Organisation, fully taking into account its wide-ranging scope and diversity, as well as the existing mechanisms of evaluation. They instructed the members of the Movement to be vigilant on this proposal and examine it in depth and on a continuous basis during the General Assembly's consideration of this matter. In this context, they reiterated that the medium-term plan constitute the principal policy directive of the United Nations and reaffirmed in this regard, General Assembly Resolution 41/213.
- The Heads of State or Government also highlighted the urgent need to further reactivate existing mechanisms within NAM in order to build and strengthen developing countries' position in all pending issues on reform and called upon their Permanent Missions in New York to work actively in this regard.
- The Heads of State of Government reviewed the institutional changes introduced in the United Nations relating to humanitarian assistance, including the transfer to the UNDP of the coordination of activities related to natural disaster mitigation relief and preparedness. They welcomed the establishment of the post of the UN Humanitarian Assistance coordinator, who would continue to coordinate emergency relief and assistance to affected countries. They stressed that humanitarian assistance should be neutral and impartial, be provided at the request of the county concerned, and fully respect its territorial integrity and sovereignty. Existing capacities in developing countries which are available closer to the site of a disaster, and often at a lower cost, must be fully utilised. The noted that the separate "Humanitarian Affairs segment" of ECOSOC had provided the necessary profile to this issue and was useful in promoting enhanced coordination of humanitarian assistance.
- The Heads of State or Government comprehensively reviewed discussions on the reform and restructuring of the Security Council, in the light of the position papers adopted by the Movement on 13 February 1995, 20 May 1996, the NAM negotiating paper dated 11 March, 1997, the decisions of the Cartagena Summit, the Twelfth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, 7-8 April 1997, the Ministerial Meeting in New York on 25 September 1997 and the Ministerial meeting of the Coordinating Bureau in Cartagena, 19-20 May 1998.
- In conformity with the New Delhi Declaration regarding the necessity to attain general agreement, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their determination that any resolution with Charter amendment implications must be adopted by the two thirds majority of the United Nations membership referred to in Article 108 of the Charter.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled that discussions in the Open-Ended Working Group on the Question of Equitable Representation and Increase in the Membership of the Security Council and other matters related to the Security Council have shown that while a convergence of views has emerged on a number of issues, important differences still exist on many others. They noted that the Open-Ended Working Group will resume its discussions and underlined the necessity of the Movement maintaining its unity and solidarity on this critical issue. They reaffirmed that the Movement should, in the ensuing negotiations, continue to pursue directives given by the Cartagena Summit and contained in the Movement's position papers. The Movement would be guided by the following considerations in approaching the issue of Security Council reform in discussions at the UN:
a. Both reform and expansion of the Security Council should be considered as integral parts of a common package, taking into account the principle of sovereign equality of States and equitable geographical distribution, as well as the need for transparency, accountability and democratisation in the working methods and procedures of the Security Council, including its decision-making process;
b. The Non-Aligned Countries are grossly under-represented in the Council. This under-representation should, therefore, be corrected by enlargement of the Security Council which should enhance the credibility of the Council, to reflect the universal character of the world body, and to correct existing imbalances in the composition of the Security Council in a comprehensive manner;
c. The extent, nature and modalities of the expansion of the Security Council should be determined on the basis of the principles of equitable geographical distribution and sovereign equality of states. There shall be no partial or selective expansion or enlargement of the membership of the Security Council to the detriment of the developing countries. Attempts to exclude NAM from any enlargement in the membership of the Council would be unacceptable to the Movement;
d. There should be an increase in the membership of the Security Council by not less than 11, based on the principles of equitable geographical distribution and sovereign equality of States;
e. The negotiation process should be truly democratic and transparent, and negotiations on all aspects should be held, in all cases in an open-ended setting.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that efforts at restructuring the Security Council shall not be subject to any imposed time-frame. While recognising the importance of treating this issue as a matter of urgent attention, no effort should be made to decide this issue before general agreement is reached.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the NAM proposal that if there is no agreement on other categories of membership, expansion should take place only, for the time being, in the non-permanent category.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the NAM proposal that the veto should be curtailed with a view to its elimination and that the Charter should be amended so that, as a first step, veto power should only apply to actions taken under Chapter VII of the Charter.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the need for a coherent and coordinated approach by the Movement in the ensuing discussions in the Open-Ended Working Group. Mindful of the importance of reaching general agreement, as reflected, inter alia, in UNGA resolution 48/26, they called for fuller discussions of various proposals submitted to the Working Group.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of enhancing the transparency of the Security Council through the improvement of its working methods and its decision-making process. They called on the Open-Ended Working Group to agree on and the General Assembly to recommend specific substantive measures to be implemented by the Security Council based on the measures proposed in the NAM negotiating paper on Cluster II issues. They also urged the Security Council to institutionalise such measures, and stressed that a commitment to institutionalise them should be an element of a package agreement on the reform of the Security Council.
- The Heads of State and Government called upon their Permanent Missions in New York to actively pursue the above positions in the framework of the ongoing discussions on Security Council expansion and reform.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled UNGA Resolution 51/193 and in this regard called for a significant improvement in the annual report of the Security Council of the General Assembly. They also urged the Security Council to provide, when necessary, special reports to the General Assembly in accordance with Articles 15 and 24 of the UN Charter.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the active participation in and contribution to the work of the Open-ended Working Groups on UN reform by the Non-Aligned Countries and encouraged them to continue to promote NAM positions in these and other fora.
- The Heads of State or Government underscored the intergovernmental character of the General Assembly and its subsidiary bodies. Efforts to strengthen the contribution of Non-Governmental Organisations to the work of the United Nations and its bodies should be through existing consultative arrangements of ECOSOC.
UNITED NATIONS PEACE KEEPING OPERATIONS
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the guiding principles regarding peacekeeping operations contained in the Final Document adopted by the XIth Ministerial Conference in Cairo on the 3rd June 1994.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption of UNGA resolution 51/218E on uniform and standardised rates for the reimbursement of death and disability sustained by troops serving in UN peacekeeping operations.
- They urged that it should be ensured that uniformed and standardised compensation is extended to all cases of death and disability of troops and observers deployed in UN peace-keeping operations.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the funding of UN peace-keeping operations through voluntary contributions should not influence UN Security Council decisions to establish peace-keeping operations or affect their mandate. They stressed the need for regular and institutionalised consultations between troop-contributing countries and the Security Council. They also stressed the need to differentiate between peace-keeping operations and humanitarian assistance.
- The Heads of State or Government, while fully appreciative of the important role played by the UN Special Committee on Peace-Keeping operations and welcoming its enlargement, stressed that it is the competent forum with the mandate to comprehensively review the whole question of peace-keeping operations in all their aspects.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their concern over the staffing structure of the Department of Peace-Keeping Operations of the UN Secretariat whereby NAM member states were insufficiently represented. They welcomed the adoption of UNGA Resolution 52/234 and 52/248 providing for the phase- out of all gratis personnel before the end of February 1999. They stressed that, on the basis of equitable geographical representation, personnel from NAM Member States should be sufficiently represented amongst the personnel for the new posts to be created in lieu of the phasing out of gratis personnel.
- The Heads of State or Government, while maintaining their view that every effort should be made to accelerate this process, reaffirmed their call to the UN Secretary-General that the recruitment and assignment of personnel for the posts previously occupied by loaned personnel be consistent with the requirements of Articles 100 and 101 of the UN Charter. They particularly underscored the importance of recruiting staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed satisfaction at the work of the NAM Working Group on Peace-Keeping Operations, chaired by Thailand, contributing to enhancing the coordination of the Non-Aligned delegations on this important issue.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed concern at the initiative by a few non-NAM countries to establish their own Standby High Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG), which is not part of the UN Standby Arrangements System. In this regard, they reaffirmed that the UN Standby Arrangements System is key to the increased effectiveness and rapid deployment of UN peacekeeping operations. They also reaffirmed that the planning and deployment of UN peacekeeping operations should be within the context of the UN Standby Arrangements System, which is open to all Member States. They took note of the UN Secretariat's affirmation that the Standby Arrangement System is based on contributions from individual Member States and that there is no UN peacekeeping brigade. In this regard, they emphasised that the name of the United Nations should not be used arbitrarily by individual States or groups in their activities without a relevant UN resolution, since the United Nations is the world's most universal international organisation comprising 185 sovereign states.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the increasing use of civilian police personnel in UN peace-keeping operations. They stressed the importance of developing at an early date agreed guidelines on the principles governing the role of civilian police personnel in UN peace keeping operations.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed deep concern over the continued delays in their reimbursement of troop costs and a contingent-owned equipment leases. These delays in reimbursement caused hardship to all troop and equipment contributing countries, specifically the NAM countries, and adversely affect their capacity and possibly their will to participate in peace-keeping operations.
- The Heads of State or Government, recalling the Secretary General's proposals for procurement reform as outlined in A/52/534, emphasised the critical importance of timely, efficient, transparent and cost effective procurement of goods and services in support of peacemaking operations. In this regard, they reiterated the need to ensure greater UN procurement from developing countries, particularly the NAM countries.
FINANCIAL SITUATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the deteriorating financial situation of the Organisation and reiterated that the primary cause of the financial crisis continue to be the failure on the part of certain developed countries to discharge fully, without conditions and on time, their assessed contribution to the Regular Budget and peacekeeping operations.
- The Heads of State or Government again urged all countries in arrears to settle their outstanding dues without further delay and to pay their future assessments in full, on time, and without imposing preconditions.
- The Heads of State or Government also expressed their concern at the continued cross-borrowing from the peacekeeping fund to the regular budget, resulting in the delay of reimbursement to the troop and contingent owned-equipment-providing countries, especially the Non-Aligned and other developing countries. They strongly urged all Member States to fulfil their legal obligations under the Charter to bring an end to this extraordinary practice. They exhorted all countries in arrears to pay their contributions as soon as possible to avoid the prolongation of this practice.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the expenses of peace-keeping operations are expenses of the United Nations to be borne by Member States in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Charter, as well as the existing special scale of assessments established by General Assembly Resolutions 1874 (S-IV) of June 1963 and 3101 (XXVIII) of 11 December 1973 which take into account the special responsibilities of the five Permanent Members of the Security Council as well as other economic considerations. These contributions must therefore be paid in full, on time and without conditions. They further stressed that the principles and guidelines for the sharing of the costs of peacekeeping operations contained in the two Resolutions 1874 (S-IV) and 3101 (XXVIII) must be institutionalised and adopted on a permanent basis. The Heads of State or Government underlined that Members of NAM and other developing countries shall be classified in category that is no higher than group C.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the importance of maintaining the principle of capacity to pay as a fundamental criteria in the apportionment of the expenses of the Organisation. They noted with interest that the scale of assessments for the period 1998-2000 took into consideration the economic conditions of the developing countries. They reiterated as unacceptable any unilateral attempt at modifying the scale of assessment through conditionalities contrary to the principles of the United Nations. It was emphasised that a reduction in the ceiling of the scale of assessments, in the regular budget, will distort the principle of capacity to pay and is thus unacceptable.
- The Heads of State or Government, while recalling the General Assembly Resolutions on the programme budget for the biennium 1998-99, emphasised the need for having adequate resources in order to fully implement all mandated activities and programmes.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the initiative to arbitrarily categorise the various programmes and activities of the United Nations as non-programmes costs which are likely to adversely affect the ability of the Organisation to perform its mandated programs and activities. Noting that all UN activities are under programme, they urged the Secretary General not to undertake any such review without satisfying the technical questions raised by various member states and other UN bodies.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that all mandated activities and programmes should be carried out by international civil servants in accordance with Articles 100 and 101 of the UN Charter. They welcomed the provisions regarding the phasing out of gratis personnel as contained in UNGA Resolutions 52/234, and 52/248. They emphasised that the gratis personnel should be phased out expeditiously in accordance with UNGA Resolution 52/234 and 52/248.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the importance of the UNGA Resolution 52/226 and expressed their concern at the negligible share of Non-Aligned and other developing countries in the UN procurement. They also emphasised that the UN procurement should be on as wide a geographical basis as possible, with preferential treatment to the developing countries, with particular attention to the LDC's and African countries, in case of equally qualified vendors. In this connection, they noted the request made in Resolution 52/226 to the Secretary General for submission of a report on this subject during the 53rd Session of the General Assembly and instructed their respective delegations to work towards early adoption and timely implementation of the provision on preferential treatment to developing countries with regard to UN procurement.
- The Heads of State or Government further underlined that the UN Suppliers Roster should be representative of the membership of the Organisation. In awarding procurement contracts, preference should be given to Member States that have fulfilled their financial obligations to the UN.
- The Heads of State or Government highlighted the important role that regional arrangements and agencies, composed of Non-Aligned and other developing countries, can play in the promotion of regional peace and security, economic cooperation and economic and social development.
- While reaffirming that the primary responsibility for international peace and security rest with the United Nations, the Heads of State or Government stressed that the role of regional arrangements or agencies, in that regard, should not in any way be substituted for the role of the United Nations, or circumvent the full application of the guiding principles of the United Nations and international law.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that a process of consultations, cooperation and coordination between the UN and regional arrangements or agencies, in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter, as well as on their mandates, scope and composition, is useful and can contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security.
- The Heads of State or Government stated that regional arrangements on economic cooperation can contribute to development and to the growth of the world economy through, inter alia, the promotion of trade, investments and technology transfer. They stressed the need for a firm commitment to enhance economic cooperation among developing countries within the framework of an open, multilateral, equitable and non-discriminatory trading system.
THE RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION AND DECOLONISATION
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the continued validity of the fundamental right of all peoples to self-determination, the exercise of which, in the case of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, is essential to ensure the eradication of all these situations and to guarantee universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They strongly condemned ongoing brutal suppression of the legitimate aspirations for self-determination of peoples under colonial, alien domination and foreign occupation in various regions of the world.
- The Heads of State or Government observed with satisfaction the emergence into sovereign statehood and independence of peoples once under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation. They reaffirmed the inalienable right of peoples of non-self-governing territories to self-determination and independence in accordance with UNGA Resolution 1514 (XV) of 14 December 1960 regardless of the territory's size, geographical location, population and limited natural resources. They renewed their commitment to hasten the complete elimination of colonialism and supported the effective implementation of the Plan of Action of the Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. In this respect, the principle of self-determination with respect to the remaining territories within the framework of the Program of Action should be implemented in accordance with the wishes of the people consistent with UNGA Resolutions and the Charter of the United Nations.
- In the context of the implementation of UNGA Resolution 1514 (XV), the Heads of State or Government reiterated that any attempt aimed at the partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.
- The Heads of State or Government called for the full implementation of relevant UNESCO resolutions and decisions relating to the restitution of cultural property of peoples formerly under colonial rule and urged that payment of applicable compensation be made in conformity with UNGA Resolution 52/24 and other relevant UNGA Resolutions on the return of cultural property to their countries of origin. They also affirmed the right of Non-Aligned countries to preserve their cultures and protect their national heritage which are the basis of the cultural identity of these countries.
- The Heads of State or Government affirmed the right of all peoples that have been subjected to colonialism to receive fair compensation for the human and material losses they suffered as a result of colonialism. They reaffirmed the call contained in the Final Communiqué of the XIth Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, that colonialist countries should shoulder their responsibility and pay full compensation for the economic, social and cultural consequences of their occupation of developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled that 1998 marks the one-hundredth anniversary of the occupation of the territory of Puerto Rico by a foreign power, and reaffirmed the right of the people of Puerto Rico to self-determination and independence on the basis of Resolution 1514 (XV) of the UN General Assembly. They took note of the resolution adopted by the UN Committee of 24 on 11 August 1998 and requested the Committee of 24 to actively pursue this issue. They reiterated, in the light of actions being carried out in the US Congress with regard to Puerto Rico, that any self-determination exercise regarding the future political status of the people of Puerto Rico should be in accordance with the resolutions adopted by the United Nations.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their strong support for the Committee of 24 and expressed their desire that in accordance with the UN reform process, the said body would continue to receive both the adequate human and financial resources aimed at actively pursuing its work in order to determine the interests of the peoples of non-self-governing territories regarding their future political status, for which a number of actions, such as visiting missions and regional seminars, are totally adequate and necessary. For this purpose, they once again called upon the Administering Powers to grant their full support to the activities of the Committee.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their commitment to bringing a speedy and unconditional end to colonialism in all its forms and manifestations, and in that regard, requested the Committee of 24 to look at its own work critically, making an assessment of the effectiveness of its activities and the areas where it can effect improvements, considering the significance of the end of the international Decade for the Eradication of Colonialism. They called upon Non-Aligned Countries which are members of the Committee to devote their greatest efforts to this end.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned the practice of recruiting, financing, training, transit, use or supporting mercenaries as a violation of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. They reiterated their belief that mercenarism, in all its forms, constitute an obstacle to peace and the exercise of sovereignty by Non-Aligned Countries. This endanger the national security of States, especially small States, as well as the safety and stability of multi-ethnic States and impede the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination. They therefore urged adherence to the provisions of UNGA Resolution 49/150, especially its call on States to consider the possibility of signing and ratifying the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries and reaffirmed UNGA Resolution 52/112 as well as Resolution 1998/6 of the 54th Session of the Commission on Human Rights.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern that various resolutions and conventions of the United Nations and regional organisations relating to mercenarism have not been implemented in full. To this end, they urged all countries to implement these unconditionally.
- The Heads of State or Government urged all States to take the necessary steps and to exercise the utmost vigilance against the menace posed by the activities of mercenaries and to take appropriate legislative measures to ensure that their territories and other territories under their control, as well as their nationals are not used for the recruitment, assembly, financing, training and transit of mercenaries for the planning of activities designed to destabilise or overthrow the Government or threaten the territorial integrity and political unity of sovereign states, promote secession or fight the national liberation movements struggling against colonial or other forms of alien domination or occupation.
DISARMAMENT AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY:
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that with the end of the cold war, there is no justification for the maintenance of nuclear arsenals, or concepts of international security based on promoting and developing military alliances and policies of nuclear deterrence. They noted and welcomed the various international initiatives, which stress that with the end of the cold war the opportunity now exists for the international community to pursue nuclear disarmament as a matter of the highest priority. They also noted that the present situation whereby Nuclear Weapon States insist that nuclear weapons provide unique security benefits, and yet monopolise the right to own them, is highly discriminatory, unstable and cannot be sustained. These weapons continued to represent a threat to the survival of the mankind. The Heads of State or Government recalled their principled positions on nuclear disarmament and the related issues of nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear tests. They expressed their concern at the slow pace of progress towards nuclear disarmament, which constitutes their primary disarmament objective. They noted the complexities arising from nuclear tests in South Asia, which underlined the need to work even harder to achieve their disarmament objectives, including elimination of nuclear weapons. They considered positively the commitment by the parties concerned in the region to exercise restraint, which contributes to regional security, to discontinue nuclear tests and not to transfer nuclear weapons-related material, equipment and technology. They further stressed the significance of universal adherence to the CTBT, including by all Nuclear Weapon States, and commencement of negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament on fissile materials (decision CD/1547), which, inter-alia, should accelerate the process of nuclear disarmament. They also stressed their positions against unilateral, coercive or discriminatory measures which have been applied against Non-Aligned countries. They reiterated the need for bilateral dialogue to secure peaceful solutions on all outstanding issues and the promotion of confidence and security building measures and mutual trust. They recalled that the Cartagena Summit had called for the adoption of an action plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons within a time-bound framework. They once again called upon the international community to join them in negotiating and implementing universal, non-discriminatory disarmament measures and mutually agreed confidence-building measures. They called for an international conference, preferably in 1999, with the objective of arriving at an agreement, before the end of this millennium on a phased program for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time to eliminate all nuclear weapons, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use and threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their call on the Conference on Disarmament to establish, as the highest priority, an ad hoc committee to start in 1998 negotiations on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time, including a Nuclear Weapons Convention. The Conference on Disarmament shall take into consideration all relevant views and proposals, regarding this issue that have been submitted to it. They also insisted on the need to conclude a universal and legally binding multilateral agreement committing all States to the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. In this context they regretted that some nuclear weapons states had adopted inflexible postures which prevented the Conference on Disarmament from commencing these negotiations. They underscored the flexibility, which on the other hand has been demonstrated by the members of the Non-Aligned Movement, members of the Conference on Disarmament, in accepting the proposal to establish an ad hoc committee under item 1of the Conference on Disarmament's agenda to negotiate a convention on the prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. They emphasised that this flexibility should be reciprocated by others through their agreement on the establishment of an ad hoc committee on nuclear disarmament as well as during the course of the negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament on fissile materials (Decision CD/1547).
- In this connection, the Heads of State or Government reiterated that a number of Non-Aligned Movement countries had taken collective initiatives at the United Nations General Assembly sessions to underscore the need for urgent action in the field of nuclear disarmament, as mandated by the Cartagena Summit. They recognised all of the constructive and useful proposals put forward by members of the Non-Aligned Movement in the Conference on Disarmament on the establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee on nuclear disarmament including the useful work done by Non-Aligned Movement members of the Conference on Disarmament in developing a Programme of Action for the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons within a time-bound framework. The Heads of State or Government took note of the Declaration issued on 9 June 1998 entitled - "Towards a World Free of Nuclear Weapons: Time for a New Agenda", supported and responded to by a number of States including by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement They recognised that this declaration as well as all other initiatives which have consistently been proposed by the Movement and its members are contributions to the goal of the complete elimination of nuclear weapons and called upon the Nuclear Weapon States to react positively to these initiatives.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed concern over the failure of the nuclear weapon States to demonstrate a genuine commitment with regard to complete nuclear disarmament, and to provide universal, unconditional, and legally binding negative security assurances to all non-nuclear weapon States, and urged the nuclear weapon States to immediately commence and conclude without delay negotiations on these assurances.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the establishment of an ad hoc Committee on effective international arrangements to assure non-nuclear weapon States against the use or the threat of use of nuclear weapons in the Conference on Disarmament to negotiate universal, unconditional and legally binding assurances to all non-nuclear weapon States. In this context, they expressed their conviction that efforts for the conclusion of a universal, unconditional and legally binding instrument on security assurances to non-nuclear-weapon States should be pursued as a matter of priority by the members of the Non-Aligned Movement.
- The Heads of State or Government commend the establishment in the Conference on Disarmament of an ad hoc committee, under agenda item 1, entitled "The cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament", to negotiate a convention on the prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and believe that the proposed convention must constitute a nuclear disarmament measure and not only a non-proliferation measure, and must be an integral step leading to the total elimination of nuclear weapons. The treaty should also promote international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and should not hinder access to nuclear technology, equipment and material for peaceful purposes by developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their conviction of the validity of the unanimous conclusion of the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice that "There exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects under strict and effective international control", and recognised that the unanimous conclusion contained in the International Court of Justices' Advisory Opinion has identified existing international law obligations. In this connection, they reiterated their call upon all States to immediately fulfil that obligation by commencing multilateral negotiations leading to an earl conclusion of a nuclear weapons convention prohibiting the development, production, testing, deployment, stockpiling, transfer, threat or use of threat of nuclear weapons and providing for their elimination.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with concern that undue restrictions on exports to developing countries of material, equipment and technology, for peaceful purposes persist. They emphasised that proliferation concerns are best addressed through multilaterally negotiated, universal, comprehensive and non-discriminatory agreements. Non-proliferation control arrangements should be transparent and open to participation by all States, and should ensure that they do not impose restrictions on access to material, equipment and technology for peaceful purposes required by developing countries for their continued development. In this regard they also expressed their strong rejection of attempts by any member State to use the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) technical cooperation programme as a tool for political purposes in violation of the IAEA's Statute.
- Consistent with the decisions taken by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Heads of State or Government of States party to the NPT called upon all States party, particularly the nuclear weapon States, to fulfil their commitments, particularly those related to Article VI of the Treaty. They also emphasised the need to ensure and facilitate the exercise of the inalienable right of all States to develop, produce and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination under IAEA safeguards. Undertakings to facilitate participation in the fullest possible exchange of equipment, material and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy should be fully implemented.
- The Heads of State or Government of States party to the NPT took note with regret at the outcome of the deliberations of the Second Preparatory Committee held in Geneva from 27 April to 8 May, 1998. They further regretted that the Committee could not achieve a substantive result due to the insistence of one delegation to support the nuclear policies of a non-party to the NPT. They called upon the Preparatory Committees up to and including the 2000 Review Conference of the NPT to engage immediately, in good faith, in substantive work for the speedy and meaningful implementation of the obligations under the Treaty and the commitments in the 1995 Principles and Objectives document, and the resolution on Middle East. In this respect they further called upon the Preparatory Committee to make specific time available at its future sessions to deliberate on the practical steps for systematic and progressive efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons and for the 2000 NPT Review Conference to establish a subsidiary body to its Main Committee to deliberate on the practical steps for systematic and progressive efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons. The Heads of State or Government parties to the NPT, called for the establishment of a subsidiary body to its Main Committee II to consider and recommend proposals on the implementation of the resolution on the Middle East adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference of the NPT.
- The Heads of State or Government Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons also called for the creation of an open-ended standing committee which would work intersessionally, to follow up recommendations concerning the implementation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons which would be agreed to at the Treaty's 2000 Review Conference.
- The Heads of State or Government of State signatory to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty expressed their satisfaction that 139 States have signed the Treaty and 14 States have ratified it thus far. They further expressed their general satisfaction at the progress of establishing the international verification system thusfar. They agreed that if the objectives of the Treaty were to be fully realised, the continued commitment of all State signatories, especially the nuclear weapon States, to nuclear disarmament would be essential.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the inviolability of peaceful nuclear activities and that any attack or threat of attack against peaceful nuclear facilities - operational or under construction - poses a great danger to human beings and the environment, and constitutes a grave violation of international law, principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter and regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency. They recognised the need for a comprehensive multilaterally negotiated instrument, prohibiting attacks, or threat of attacks on nuclear facilities devoted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
- The Heads of State or Government of the States party to the Chemical Weapons Convention welcomed the increasing number of ratifications of the Convention and invited all States who have still not ratified it to do so as soon as possible with the view to its universality. They also underlined the urgency of satisfactorily resolving the unresolved issues in the framework of the Organisation of the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) with a view to paving the ground for the effective, full and non-discriminatory implementation of the Convention. In this context, they reiterated their call on the developed countries to promote international cooperation through the transfer of technology, material and equipment for peaceful purposes in the chemical field and the removal of all and any discriminatory restrictions that are contrary to the letter and spirit of the Convention.
- The Heads of State or Government of the States party to the Chemical Weapons Convention, while stressing the importance of the full implementation of the Convention, and in this context, the provisions of Article X on Assistance, expressed their concern at the small number of responses received from the States Parties to the Voluntary Fund on Assistance established by the OPCW and called upon all States Parties to the Convention that had not yet acted in accordance with Article X, to reply to the OPCW and contribute to redress this situation.
- While asserting that the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention inherently precludes the use of biological weapons, the Heads of State or Government reiterated the decision by the BWC Review Conference that the use by the States parties, in any way and under any circumstances, of microbial or other biological agents or toxins, that is not consistent with prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes, is effectively a violation of Article I of the Convention. In this connection they noted that the Islamic Republic of Iran has formally presented a proposal to amend Article I of the Convention to include the prohibition of use of biological weapons and urged an early reply from the States parties to the inquiries by the depositories on this proposal. They noted the progress achieved so far negotiating a Protocol to strengthen the BWC and reaffirmed the decision of the Fourth Review Conference urging the conclusion of the negotiations by the Ad Hoc group as soon as possible before the commencement of the Fifth Review Conference and for it to submit its report, which shall be adopted by consensus, to the States parties, to be considered at a Special Conference. Therefore, artificial deadlines should be avoided. They also expressed their concern at any attempts to reduce the scope and importance of issues related to Article X of the Convention. Ensured access for peaceful purposes to the relevant materials, equipment and technology is essential to safeguard the economic interests of developing countries. Substantive progress in strengthening the application and full operationalisation of Article X is thus crucial for the conclusion of a universally acceptable and legally binding instrument designed to strengthen the Convention.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed particular concern over the illicit transfer and circulation of small arms and light weapons and their accumulation and proliferation in many countries, which constituted a serious threat to the population and to the national and regional security and were a factor contributing to the destabilisation of States. They urged States to take steps to deal effectively, through administrative and legislative means, with the increasing problem of illicit transfer of small arms and light weapons which exacerbate tensions leading to strife, conflict and terrorism, and impact negatively on the socio-economic development of affected countries. In this regard, they welcomed the adoption of guidelines in 1996 for international arm transfers in the context of General Assembly resolution 46/36H of 6 September 1991 by the United Nations Disarmament Commission. Moreover, they welcomed the initiative by His Excellency Alpha Oumar Konare, President of the Republic of Mali, on the establishment of a moratorium on the production, transfer and illicit traffic of light arms in West Africa, adopted by member States of ECOWAS within the framework of on-going discussions and referring to the creation of a mechanism to prevent, handle and rule on conflicts in the sub-region. They also welcomed the decision adopted by the 34th Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) regarding the problem of small arms and light weapons in Africa.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised that there is also a significant imbalance in the production, possession and trade in conventional weapons between the industrialised and the Non-Aligned countries and they called for a significant reduction in the production, possession and trade of conventional weapons by the States with the largest arsenals with a view to enhancing international and regional peace and security
- The Heads of State or Government encouraged States, taking into account the legitimate requirement of States for self-defence and the specific characteristics of each region, to consider appropriate initiatives at international, regional and national levels to promote transparency in all types of armaments as an important element for building confidence and security. They also stressed that the concept of transparency should encompass both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction, in particular, nuclear weapons.
- The Heads of State or Government called on States to become parties to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (CCW) and the Protocols thereto, and expressed their satisfaction on the entry into force of its Protocol IV on Blinding Laser Weapons on 30 July 1998 as well as the announcement by the UN Secretary-General that the Protocol II, as amended, on Mines, Booby-Traps and other Devices of the CCW would enter into force on 3 December 1998.
- The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community to provide the necessary assistance to landmine clearance operations as well as to the rehabilitation of the victims and their social and economic reintegration in the landmine affected countries. They further called for international assistance to ensure full access of affected countries to material equipment, technology and financial resources for mine clearance. They also called for continued humanitarian assistance for victims of landmines.
- The Heads of State and Government deplored the use, in contravention of international humanitarian law, of anti-personnel mines in conflict situations aimed at terrorising civilians, denying them access to farmland, causing famine and forcing them to flee their homes eventually leading to de-population and preventing the return of civilians to their place of original residence.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed concern about the residue of the Second World War, particularly in the form of landmines which cause human and material damage and obstruct development plans in some Non-Aligned countries. They called on the States responsible for laying the mines outside their territories to assume responsibility for the landmines, to cooperate with the affected countries, to provide the necessary information, maps and technical assistance for their clearance, to contribute towards defrayal of the costs of clearance and provide compensation for any ensuing losses.
- The Heads of State or Government considered the establishment of nuclear-weapon free zones (NWFZ's) as a positive step towards attaining the objective of global nuclear disarmament. They urged States to conclude agreements with a view to creating nuclear-weapon-free zones in regions where they do not exist, in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of the Special Session of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament (SSOD-I). In this context, they welcomed the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones established by the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba. The Heads of State or Government considered the question of the establishment of nuclear-weapon free zones in other parts of the world and agreed that this should be on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned and in conformity with the provisions of the Final Document of SSOD-I. They concurred that in the context of nuclear-weapon free zones, it is essential that nuclear weapon States should provide unconditional assurances against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons to all States of the zone.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed and supported Mongolia's policy to institutionalise its single State nuclear weapon-free status.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their support for the establishment in the Middle East of a zone free of all weapons of mass destruction. To this end, they reaffirmed the need for the speedy establishment of a nuclear-weapon free zone in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council resolutions 487 (1981) and 687 (1991) and the relevant General Assembly resolutions adopted by consensus. They called upon all parties concerned to take urgent and practical steps towards the establishment of such a zone and, pending its establishment, they called on Israel, the only country in the region that has not joined the NPT nor declared its intention to do so, to renounce possession of nuclear weapons, to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) without delay, and to place promptly all its nuclear facilities under IAEA full-scope safeguards. They expressed great concern over the acquisition of nuclear capability by Israel which poses a serious and continuing threat to the security of neighbouring and other States and they condemned Israel for continuing to develop and stockpile nuclear arsenals. They are of the view that stability cannot be achieved in a region where massive imbalances in military capabilities are maintained particularly through the possession of nuclear weapons which allow one party to threaten its neighbours and the region. They further welcomed the initiative by H.E. Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, on the establishment of a zone free from weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. They stressed that necessary steps should be taken in different international fora for the establishment of this zone. They also called for the total and complete prohibition of the transfer of all nuclear-related equipment, information, material and facilities, resources or devices and the extension of assistance in the nuclear related scientific or technological fields to Israel.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the initiative by H E. Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, in June 1998, to achieve a world free from all weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons and to convene as soon as possible an international conference to consider this issue.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the Israeli-Turkish military alliance as well as the naval manoeuvres carried out in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and the dangers that such manoeuvres pose to the security of the region.
- The Heads of State or Government stated that in order to enhance international security and stability, all States parties to non-proliferation, arms limitations and disarmament treaties should comply with and implement all provisions of such treaties. They emphasised that questions of non-compliance by States Parties should be resolved in a manner consistent with such treaties. They further emphasised that any deviation from the role envisaged for the Security Council under the United Nations Charter or in certain circumstances under relevant provisions of multilateral treaties on non-proliferation, arms limitation and disarmament would undermine the provisions of these treaties and conventions, including the inherent mechanisms for securing redress of violations of their provisions. Such deviations would also call into question the value of painstaking multilateral negotiations on disarmament and arms control treaties in the Conference on Disarmament. They underlined that circumventing or undermining the provisions of existing treaties will seriously prejudice the role of the Conference. In this context, they also underlined that they were opposed to the assumption of a role by the United Nations Security Council inconsistent with the United Nations Charter, also as this concerns non-proliferation.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that global and regional approaches to disarmament are complementary and could be pursued simultaneously. They urged States in various regions of the world to negotiate agreements to promote greater balance in conventional armaments and restraint in the production and acquisition of conventional arms and, where necessary, for their progressive and balanced reduction, with a view to enhancing international and regional peace and security. They stressed that the peaceful resolution of regional and inter-State disputes is essential for the creation of conditions which would enable States to divert their resources from armaments to economic growth and development. Regional disarmament initiatives, to be practical, needed to take into account the special characteristics of each region and enhance the security of every State of the region concerned. The question of the accumulation of conventional weapons beyond the legitimate requirements of the States for self-defence should also be addressed, taking into account the special characteristics of each region.
- The Heads of State or Government took note of the relevant paragraphs of the United Nation General Assembly resolutions 52/12A & B on international peace, security and disarmament, and insisted on the need that its implementation respects fully the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity and non-intervention in the internal affairs of States.
- The Heads of State or Government continued to stress their hope that the decision to re-establish at the United Nations Secretariat, the Department on Disarmament, headed by an Under Secretary General from a Non-Aligned country should contribute to greater disarmament efforts towards achieving general and complete disarmament in conformity with priorities set out in SSOD I and relevant provisions of General Assembly resolution 52/220.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed once again their support for the convening of the Fourth Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to Disarmament. They welcomed the adoption by the General Assembly, by consensus, of the resolution on the Convening of the IV Special Session of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament. They took note of the deliberations on the matter held by the United Nations Disarmament Commission and directed the Coordinating Bureau to entrust the Non-Aligned Movement Working Group on Disarmament with the task of pursuing further the holding of the Fourth Special Session and the related coordination during the preparatory process. In this context, they reaffirmed the need to continue to press for further steps leading to its convening with the participation of all member States of the United Nations as well as the need for SSOD IV to review and assess the implementation of SSOD I.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the decision adopted by the General Assembly on maintaining and revitalising the three Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament in Nepal, Peru and Togo.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the work of the Non-Aligned Working Group on Disarmament under the coordination of Indonesia and encouraged delegations to continue their active work in this regard.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the validity of the objectives of the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. They reaffirmed the importance of international co-operation to ensure peace, security and stability in the Indian Ocean region. They noted that greater efforts and more time were required to facilitate a focused discussion on practical measures to ensure conditions of peace, security and stability in the region. They also noted that in the light of UNGA Resolution 52/44, the Chairman of the Ad-Hoc Committee on the Indian Ocean will continue his informal consultations on the future work of the Committee.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed with satisfaction the adoption by the General Assembly of the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism (UNGA Resolution 49/60) and the Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings adopted at the 52nd session of the UN General Assembly and urged that they be implemented. They reiterated their condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, as they have adverse consequences, inter alia, on the economic and social development of States. They declared that terrorism also affect the stability of nations and the very basis of societies, especially pluralistic societies. They also called for the urgent conclusion and the effective implementation of a comprehensive international convention for combating terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government further welcomed the recent adoption by the Members of the League of Arab States in Cairo of the Convention on Combating Terrorism as well as the Tehran OIC Summit Resolution to conclude an OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism and the strengthened efforts therein.
- The Heads of State or Government further urged all States to cooperate to enhance international cooperation in the fight against terrorism, wherever, by whoever and against whomever it occurred, at the national, regional and international levels, and to observe and implement the relevant international and bilateral instruments, taking into account the Final Document of the UN Conference on the Prevention of Crime held in Cairo in 1995.
- The Heads of State or Government affirmed that criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for whatever purposes are, in any circumstance, unjustifiable, whatever the considerations or factors that may be invoked to justify them.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that all States are under the obligation pursuant to the purposes and principles and other provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and other relevant international instruments, codes of conduct and other rules of international law to refrain from organising, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in the territories of other States, or acquiescing in or encouraging activities within the territories directed towards the commission of such acts, including allowing the use of national territories and territories under their jurisdiction for planning and training for that purpose, and/or the financing of terrorist activities. They solemnly reaffirmed their unequivocal condemnation of any political, diplomatic, moral or material support to terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the Movement's principled position under the international law on the legitimacy of struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for national liberation and self-determination which did not constitute terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government called once again for the endorsement in principle of the call for the definition of terrorism to differentiate it from the legitimate struggle of peoples under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation, for self-determination and national liberation.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the need to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations regardless of race, religion or nationality of the victims or perpetrators of terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government also emphasised that the taking of hostages, wherever and by whoever committed, constitute a serious obstacle to the full enjoyment of all human rights and is , under any circumstances, unjustifiable. They therefore called on States to take all necessary measures to prevent, combat and punish acts of hostage taking, including strengthening international cooperation in this field.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned terrorist attacks in fellow NAM countries and other countries. They welcomed the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1189/1998 on 13 August 1998 which strongly condemned the terrorist bomb attacks in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar-ES- Salaam, Tanzania on 7 August 1998 that claimed hundreds of innocent lives, injured thousands of people and caused massive destruction to property.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised that international cooperation to combat terrorism should be conducted in conformity with the principles of the UN Charter, international law and relevant international conventions, and expressed their opposition to selective and unilateral actions in violation of principles and purposes of the UN Charter. In this context, they called upon the competent UN Organs to promote ways and means to strengthen cooperation, including the international legal regime for combating international terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government decided further to coordinate their efforts in the competent UN Organs to take appropriate decisions, consistent with the Charter, to fight and eradicate terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
- In light of all these considerations and the previous initiatives adopted by NAM, the Heads of State or Government called for an International Summit Conference under the auspices of the United Nations to formulate a joint organised response of the international community to terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled paragraph 11 of the Final Document of the XII NAM Ministerial Meeting and directed that the Movement should promote jointly its collective position on terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their satisfaction with the revitalisation of the Non-Aligned Working Group on legal issues at the UN Headquarters in New York, chaired by Zimbabwe, which should contribute to upgrade the work and level of coordination of the Non-Aligned delegations on these important issues.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined that with the conclusion of the Cold War, many new areas of concern have emerged which warrant a renewal of the commitment of the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the United Nations Charter and international law as well as a fuller utilisation of the mechanism and means for the peaceful settlement of disputes, as envisaged in the United Nations Charter.
- The Heads of State or Government agreed that peace and harmony among nations and peoples require States to respect and promote the rule of law. For this reason, they committed themselves to conduct their external affairs based upon the obligations of international law. They agreed that only an international society governed by law could assure peace and security for all its members.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their support for the United Nations Decade of International Law, which was proposed by the Movement in June 1989. They reaffirmed their support for General Assembly resolution 52/154 on action to be taken dedicated to the 1999 Centennial of the First International Peace Conference and to the closing of the United Nations Decade of International Law. They reaffirmed the importance of the Programme of Action for the Centennial of the First International Peace Conference, including the meetings being organised by the "Friends of 1999" at the Peace Palace in the Hague, in St Petersburg and in Geneva. They called upon these meetings to support the historic and progressive positions of the Movement on the issues relating to international law, disarmament, prevention of conflicts, peaceful settlement of disputes and the maintenance of international peace and security. They stressed their hope that all Governments and relevant international organisations will support the Programme of Action which calls for the presentation of the results of the umbrella of meetings of the Centennial of the First International Peace Conference to the 54th Session of the General Assembly.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that further progress is necessary to achieve full respect for international law and the International Court of Justice and, inter alia, for promoting the peaceful settlement of disputes and a system of international criminal justice with respect to crimes against humanity as well as other international offences. The Charter refers to the International Court of Justice as the Organisation's principal judicial organ. The Security Council should make greater use of the World Court as a source of advisory opinions, and in controversial instances, use the World Court as a source of interpreting relevant international law and consider decisions to review by the World Court.
- The Heads of State or Government took note of the adoption of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. They emphasised the need to take all possible measures to ensure the coming into operation of the International Criminal Court without undue delay and to make the necessary arrangements for the commencement of its functions. The Heads of State or Government also emphasised the need to begin work on practical arrangements for the establishment and coming into operation of the Court. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government encouraged member states to sign and ratify the Statute of the Court at the earliest possible time. They also called for the early establishment of the Preparatory Commission by the General Assembly of the United Nations to enable the commission to begin its work at an early date in 1999.
- The Heads of State or Government encouraged the active participation of the members of NAM in the work of the preparatory commission and re-emphasised the need for coordination among member states during the preparatory commission, in order to harmonise, as far as is possible, the positions of the Members of the Movement inspired by NAM values and principles.
- The Heads of State or Government called on all States to cooperate with the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and to apprehend and return for trial those who committed the crime of genocide in Rwanda to the country where the crime was committed. They also expressed appreciation to the countries who had already done so.
- The Heads of State or Government also stressed the importance of cooperation and compliance with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and reiterated that individual responsibility for the perpetration of crimes against humanity and other serious violations of humanitarian law should be established.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed their serious concern on the intention of a group of States to unilaterally re-interpret or re-draft the existing legal instruments in accordance with their own views and interests. They emphasised that the integrity of legal instruments adopted by Member States must be maintained. They also expressed their deep concern at the most recent experiences in the elections of members of several Treaty Bodies, which resulted in a loss of seats of experts from Non-Aligned countries, which resulted in an unbalanced representation of all regions at these bodies. They called upon the Non-Aligned countries that are Parties of the relevant legal treaties to work together in order to redress this anomaly, and underline the need for a more active solidarity and unity among the Non-Aligned countries by supporting the candidatures of experts from the Non-Aligned countries.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned the continued unilateral application, by certain powers, of coercive economic and other measures, including the enactment of extra-territorial laws, against a number of developing countries, with a view to preventing these countries from exercising their right to decide, by their own free will, their own political, economic and social systems. They called on all countries not to recognise the unilateral extra-territorial laws enacted by certain countries which impose sanctions on other States and foreign companies and individuals. They reaffirmed that such legislation contradict norms of international law and run counter to the principles and purposes of the United Nations.
- The Heads of State or Government called on all States to refrain from adopting or implementing extra-territorial or unilateral measures of coercion as means of exerting pressure on Non-Aligned and other developing countries. They noted that measures such as Helms-Burton, D'Amato-Kennedy Acts and other laws recently enacted related to other issues, constitute violations of international law and the Charter of the United Nations, and called on the international community to take effective action in order to arrest this trend.
- The Heads of State or Government rejected all attempts to introduce new concepts of international law geared at internationalising the essential elements contained in extra-territorial laws through multilateral agreements.
- The Heads of State and Government agreed that Member States should effectively intensify their efforts in the 53rd UN General Assembly Session to negotiate an international instrument ensuring the inviolability of their territories from outer space, and to promote an internal mechanism within the United Nations for the exchange of information collected by means of modern space technology, taking into account the conclusions and recommendations of the report of the Government Group of Experts on confidence-building measures in outer space, submitted to the 46th Session of the UN General Assembly.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their rejection of evaluations, certifications and other coercive unilateral measures as a means of exerting pressure on Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries. In this context they reiterated their view that coercive unilateral measures and legislation are contrary to international law, the United Nations Charter and the norms and principles governing peaceful relations among states and furthermore, they also rejected the present trend geared at their strengthening and expansion through the Bretton Woods institutions. They expressed, once again, their concern over the extraterritorial nature of those measures which, in addition, threaten the sovereignty of States. They called upon States applying unilateral coercive measures to put an immediate end to those measures.
- The Heads of State or Government called on the international community, including NAM Member States, to redouble their efforts to combat corruption and organised crime and encouraged Member States to further enhance international cooperation in this regard.
- The Heads of State or Government, recalling the Ten Bandung Principles, which constitute the foundations of the Movement, expressed their deep concern over the air attack carried out by the United States Government against the El-Shifa Pharmaceutical Plant in the Sudan on 20 August 1998, and considered this as a serious violation of the principles of international law and the UN Charter and contrary to the principles of peaceful settlement of disputes as well as a serious threat to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Sudan and the regional stability and international peace and security. They further considered this attack as a unilateral and unwarranted act. The Heads of State or Government condemned this act of aggression and the continuing threats made by the United States Government against the Sudan and urged the US Government to refrain from such unilateral acts. They further expressed support to the Sudan in its legitimate demands for full compensation for economic and material losses resulting from the attack.
LAW OF THE SEA
- The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction that the International Seabed Authority had now begun substantive consideration of the Draft Mining Code for polymetallic nodules in the area and that the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea had received its first two cases. They noted further that the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf was now fully operational. In this regard, they urged all States party to fully support the institutions created by the Convention. The Heads of State or Government once again urged all countries, and especially the developed countries that have not yet done so, to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the Convention and the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the Convention relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and the Highly Migratory Fish Stocks at the earliest. They reaffirmed that the Convention and the Agreement represent significant achievements by the international community through multilateral efforts in creating a legal order for the seas and oceans which would, inter alia, facilitate international communications, promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilisation of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment.
PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the need for a renewal of commitment by the international community to uphold and defend the principles of the UN Charter and international law as well as the means envisaged in the UN Charter for the pacific settlement of disputes. The role of the Movement in promoting a just international order would largely depend on its inner strength, unity and cohesion. It is therefore incumbent on all Member States to work earnestly towards promoting the solidarity and unity of the Movement.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled the decisions of the Cartagena Summit to mandate the Coordinating Bureau to study further the question of a mechanism for peaceful settlement of disputes between Member States, including proposals made and positions expressed at the Summit and to report to the Committee on Methodology. They noted that this study has yet to be submitted.
CULTURE OF PEACE
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption in the last session of the UNGA resolution (52/13) on the Culture of Peace. The Heads of State or Government called for the promotion of a culture of peace based on the principles established in the Charter of the UN and on respect for human rights, democracy and tolerance, the promotion of development, education for peace, rejection of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, and foreign occupation, the free flow of information and the wider participation of women as an integral approach to preventing violence and conflicts and efforts aimed at the creation of conditions for peace and its consolidation. The Heads of State or Government also welcomed that the Secretary-General is submitting a consolidated report containing a draft declaration and programme of action on the culture of peace to the General Assembly at its forthcoming session. In this context, the Heads of State or Government welcomed the proclamation of the year 2000 as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the period 2001-2010 as the International Decade for the Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World.
ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION
A. PALESTINE AND THE MIDDLE EAST
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their traditional long-standing solidarity with the Palestinian people, and noted that these days mark the 50th Anniversary of the dispossession of the Palestinian people and the uprooting of hundreds of thousands Palestinians from their land, homes and properties. They called for the implementation of all UN Resolutions on the question of Palestine including those related to Palestinian refugees. They reiterated their support for the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people, including their right to return to their homeland and to have their own independent State with Jerusalem as its capital, and they reiterated their demand for the withdrawal of Israel, the occupying Power, from all the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and the other Arab territories occupied since 1967.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their position on occupied east Jerusalem, the illegal Israeli settlements, and the applicability of the fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 to all the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem. They demanded that Israel, the Occupying Power, implement relevant Security Council Resolutions in this regard and abide by its legal obligations. They reiterated their support for the recommendations contained in the resolutions adopted during the Tenth Emergency Special Session (ES-10/2, ES-10/3, ES-10/4 and ES-10/5) including, inter alia, the recommendation to convene a conference of the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention on measures to enforce the Convention in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including Jerusalem, and to ensure its respect in fulfilment of their collective responsibility as stipulated in common article 1 of the Fourth Geneva Convention.
- The heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption by the UNGA of Resolution 52/250 on the participation of Palestine in the work of the UN and expressed confidence that Palestine will enjoy full membership in the United Nations in the near future, preferably during the 53rd session of the General Assembly. They also reiterated that Israeli representation in the work of the General Assembly must be in conformity with international law, thus ensuring that Israeli credentials do not cover the occupied territories since 1967, including Jerusalem.
- The Heads of State or Government strongly condemned the decision of the Government of Israel on 21st June 1998 to take further steps to expand the jurisdiction and planned boundaries of Jerusalem. In this regard, they highly appreciated the efforts deployed by His Majesty Hassan II, King of Morocco, Chairman of Al-Quds Committee for the safeguard of Jerusalem. They fully supported the content of the Final Communiqué and recommendations adopted by the Committee at its XVII Session held in Casablanca on 29-30 July 1998.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their deep concern over the current deadlock of the Palestinian-Israeli Track of the Middle East peace process as a result of the policies and actions of the Israeli Government, in violation of the existing agreements, including settlement activities, repressive measures and economic suffocation of the Palestinian people. In this regard, they condemned in particular the recent killing and wounding by the Israeli army of scores of Palestinian civilians. They called for increasing efforts to ensure compliance by Israel with the existing agreements and their timely implementation.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that all measures and actions taken, or to be taken by Israel, the occupying power, such as its illegal decision of 14 December 1981 that purport to alter the legal, physical and demographic status of the occupied Syrian Golan and its institutional structure, as well as the Israeli measures to apply its jurisdiction and administration there, are null and void. They also reaffirmed that all such measures and actions constitute a flagrant violation of international law, international conventions, the Charter and decisions of the UN, particularly Security Council Resolution 497 (1981), the fourth Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 on the protection of civilians in time of war, and a defiance of the will of the international community. They demanded that Israel comply with Security Council resolution 497 (1981) and withdraw fully from the occupied Syrian Golan, to the lines of 4 June 1967, in implementation of Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338.
- The Heads of State or Government affirmed their unwavering support and solidarity with the Syrian just demand and right to fully restore the occupied Syrian Golan on the basis of the terms of reference of the Madrid peace process, the decisions of the international legitimacy, as well as the formula of land for peace. They demanded that Israel respect all commitments and pledges entered into, and resume the peace talks from where they stopped.
- The Heads of State or Government of the Non-Aligned countries, while expressing their deep concern over the continued Israeli aggression against Lebanon and the ensuant illegal detainment of Lebanese nationals, loss of innocent civilian lives and extensive destruction of property, called on Israel to withdraw immediately, completely and unconditionally from Southern Lebanon and Western Bekaa to the internationally recognised boundaries in compliance with Security Council Resolution 425 (1978) and 426 (1978) and to fully and strictly respect the territorial integrity, sovereignty and political independence of Lebanon. They also maintained that any conditions put forward by Israel for the Implementation of Resolution 425 (1978) would alter its legal and political structure and are hence unacceptable.
THE PEACE PROCESS
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need to achieve comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East. They affirmed their determination to actively strive toward the attainment of this objective. They reiterated their support for the Middle East Peace Process based on Security Council Resolutions 242, 338 and 425 and the principle of land for peace; They further reiterated the need for compliance with and implementation of the agreements reached between the Palestine Liberation Organisation and Israel as well as the fulfilment of the commitments and pledges made in accordance with the terms of reference of Madrid conference and the ensued negotiations. They expressed grave concern over the current plight of the process, the deadlock of the Palestinian-Israeli track and the total cessation of the Syrian-Israeli and Lebanese-Israeli tracks. They deplored the attempts of the Israeli Government to change the terms of reference of the peace process, to create facts on the ground which are obstacles to peace and to try to develop unacceptable concepts which are contrary to the principle of land for peace and the national rights of the Palestinian people.
- In view of the urgency and seriousness of the situation, the Heads of State or Government request NAM Countries to increase pressure and use all available measures on regional and international level to ensure Israel's compliance with the terms of reference of the Madrid Conference and the land for peace principles and its full implementation of all agreements, undertakings, and commitments reached by the concerned parties on all tracks during the peace talks. They also affirmed that failure by the Israeli government to respond positively, would require NAM members to take further appropriate measures.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed all previous positions and declarations of the Non-Aligned Movement on the question of Cyprus and expressed deep concern and disappointment over the fact that no progress has been achieved in the search for a just and viable solution due to the Turkish intransigence and the attempt of the Turkish side to introduce preconditions to the two rounds of direct negotiations, held in July and August 1997, between the President of Cyprus and the Turkish Cypriot leader, at the United Nations Secretary - General's initiative.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their support for the sovereignty, unity, independence and territorial integrity of the Republic of Cyprus, and their solidarity with the people and the Government of Cyprus. They called once again for the withdrawal of all occupation forces and settlers, the return of the refugees to their homes in conditions of safety, the restoration of and respect for human rights of all Cypriots and the accounting for all missing persons.
- While reiterating their position that the present status quo in Cyprus, created and maintained by the use of force, is unacceptable, the Heads of State or Government underlined the importance and urgency for the effective implementation of all UN resolutions, in particular Security Council Resolutions 365(1974), 541(1983), 550(1984) and 939(1994), and to that end, for the Security Council to take resolute action and appropriate measures including the holding of an international conference and the demilitarisation of Cyprus, as repeatedly proposed by the President of Cyprus. They expressed grave concern about recent continuous Turkish threats of use of force against Cyprus and integration of the occupied territory by Turkey and deplored threats by the Turkish side that it will not attend any new round of talks unless the purported state in the occupied territory is recognised. They condemned the declared attempts of the Turkish side for a change of the basis of the inter-communal dialogue under the mandate of the United Nations Secretary General. They considered such demands contrary to the relevant UN resolutions, the Non-Aligned Declarations and the principles of international law and called for their withdrawal.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the continuing lack of political will on the part of the Turkish side, as confirmed by the report of the United Nations Secretary-General (document S/1994/629, dated 30 May 1994). They reaffirmed their support for the United Nations Secretary General's efforts for a just, comprehensive and workable solution, as provided in paragraph 2 of Security Council Resolution 939 (1994) and decided to request the contact group of Non-Aligned countries to remain seized of the situation and actively support such efforts.
SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
- The Heads of State or Government reviewed the developments that occurred in the Mediterranean region since the Cartagena Summit. They reaffirmed their determination to intensify the process of dialogue and consultations in the promotion of comprehensive and equitable cooperation in the region in resolving the problems existing in the Mediterranean region, in the elimination of the causes of tension and the consequent threat to peace and security. They stressed that respect for the right to self-determination, elimination of foreign occupation and foreign bases, non-interference in the internal affairs and respect for the sovereignty of States are prerequisites for the establishment of peace and stability in the Mediterranean region.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the various initiatives advanced to promote Mediterranean cooperation and security as reflected in the relevant paragraphs of the Final Document of Cartagena. In welcoming the decision taken by the IPU Second Conference on Security and Cooperation in the Mediterranean to set up an association of Mediterranean States, they stressed their conviction that parliaments should be actively involved in bringing the peoples of the Mediterranean region closer together. In this regard, they took note of the conclusions reached on the CSCM process at the IPU Conference held in Windhoek, Namibia, in April 1998. They also welcomed the convening of the second IPU thematic preparatory meeting of the 3rd CSCM held in Evora, Portugal on 25 and 26 June 1998 on Facilitating access to information and culture exchange in the Mediterranean.
- The Heads of State or Government took note of the ongoing Euro-Mediterranean process and welcomed the holding of the Euro-Mediterranean Foreign Ministers Meeting in Malta in April 1997 and the Ad Hoc Ministerial Meeting held in Palermo in June 1998. They also took note of the meetings of the Mediterranean Forum in Algiers in July 1997 and in Palma de Mallorca in April 1998. In this regard, they recognised that prospects for a closer Euro-Mediterranean partnership in all its fields, including at the parliamentary level, would enhance such process and would benefit from the participation of all Mediterranean States in strengthening the cooperation in the region.
- The Heads of State or Government also welcomed the first preparatory meeting at parliamentary level between the European Parliament and Parliamentarians from the Mediterranean countries involved in the Euro-Med, process, held in Malta in May 1998, to agree on objectives, participation and venue for the first Euro-Mediterranean Meeting at Parliamentary Level to be held later this year, with the aim to further explore the potential for developing the parliamentary dimension of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership and to better define its specific objectives and modalities. In this context, they also welcomed the Joint Final Statement by the Speaker of the Maltese House of Representatives and the Vice President of the European Parliament as Co-Chairs of the Preparatory Meeting of the Euro Mediterranean Forum.
- The Heads of State or Government commended the efforts of the Non-Aligned Mediterranean countries in meeting the emerging multiple challenges heightened by terrorist activities and organised criminal activity, including drug trafficking, money laundering and illegal migration, which are posing a serious threat to security and stability in the region. In this context, they committed themselves to strengthen further their cooperation with the view to eliminating these threats and thus enhancing the current political, economic and social situation in the Mediterranean region.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the recent developments in Africa to enhance economic cooperation and social development in the continent. They particularly welcomed the signing and ratification of the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community and urged all participating countries to create the necessary environment within their countries and sub-regions to give full expression to the ideals embodied in the Treaty.
- In this regard they noted with satisfaction the measures taken by African States to restructure their economies in order to improve their economic situation. However they regretted the fact that despite all the efforts made in a context of serious social and economic constraints, the situation remain disturbing especially as a result of the persistence of the serious debt burden. They underlined the need for concerted action by international community including the international financial institutions and developed countries to find a durable solution to the problem of external debt.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with concern the continued acts of violence perpetrated by terrorist groups against States or Governments and innocent civilians, causing instability and severe disruption of development efforts in the continent. In this regard they welcomed the efforts undertaken by African countries towards the resolution of incipient and persistent conflicts in the continent and called on the international community to support these efforts.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the existence of an intrinsic link between peace and development, which requires an integrated approach to conflict prevention, resolution and management. In this regard, they reiterated their support for the efforts of the Organisations of African Unity, sub-regional organisations and the UN to resolve conflicts in Africa to enhance durable peace and sustainable development.
- The Heads of State or Government call upon all African countries, to continue to resolve their differences and conflicts, including those related to international boundaries in accordance with the OAU Charter and relevant Principles. They stressed that the use of armed force is not acceptable as a means of addressing border disputes or changing established borders. They reaffirmed the responsibility of the UN, especially the Security Council in the maintenance of peace, security and stability in the continent.
- The Heads of State or Government took note of the report of the UN Secretary General on "The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa". They commended the Secretary General for his timely and comprehensive report proposing guidelines on conflict prevention management and resolution.
- The Heads of State or Government commended the Security Council for establishing a follow-up mechanism to implement the recommendations contained in the Secretary General's report, within its own competence, and encouraged the Council to pursue its efforts in this regard.
- The Heads of State or Government recommended that the General Assembly, the UN system, the Bretton Woods institutions and other appropriate bodies consider the Secretary - General's report and to follow up the recommendations contained therein.
- The Heads of State or Government welcome the decision of the United Kingdom and the United States of America to finally accept the positions advocated by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya supported by the NAM, OAU, Arab League and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference and other regional organisations of the south to try the two suspects of the PanAm 103 over Lockerbie in a neutral country. They expressed their regret that it has taken so long for them to accept this position.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their continuous support for the stand of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya to secure a fair and just trial for the two suspects. They called upon the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Netherlands to engage in discussions with the Libyan Arab Jmahiriya or through the Secretary General of the United Nations with the objective of implementing the initiative referred to in the Security Council resolution 1192(1998) including trial arrangements and the appropriate safety measures for the two suspects.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their shock at the immense harmful effects both human and economic sanctions imposed upon Libya by Security Council resolutions 748(1992) and 883(1993) have caused on the Libyan people. They further deplored the threats to further tighten the sanctions imposed by the said resolutions of the Security Council in total disregard to the positive compliance by Libya to the demands of those resolutions. They noted that this continued despite repeated calls by international and regional organisations including NAM for the lifting of the sanctions imposed on the Libyan people.
- In the light of these new developments, the Heads of State or Government decided that the sanctions imposed on the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya must be suspended once an agreement has been reached between the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and the concerned countries on the arrangements and the guarantees leading to the appearance of the two suspects before the Court. They further decided that the sanctions must be totally terminated once the suspects have appeared for trial, and decided that NAM shall act accordingly.
- The Heads of State or Government, noting the latest progress in resolving the question of Western Sahara, reiterated the support of the Movement for the efforts of the United Nations to organise and supervise an impartial, free and fair referendum in accordance with the Settlement Plan, the Houston Agreements and with relevant Security Council and UN Resolutions.
- The Heads of State or Government reviewed events in Sierra Leone since their last meeting in New Delhi and regretted the deterioration in the political situation in that country occasioned by the forcible overthrow of the constitutionally-elected Government of H.E. President Tejan Kabbah by a group of military putschists. They deplored the considerable havoc wreaked thereby on the social and economic infrastructures of the country, and the terror and destruction experienced by its peace-loving people. However, they noted with satisfaction that through the determined efforts of the sub-regional peacekeeping force, ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), acting with the full and express authority of ECOWAS Heads of State and Government and within the purview of the relevant United Nations Security Council Resolution, the situation has been reversed and H.E. Mr. Abmed Tejan Kabbah restored to power in Freetown on Tuesday, 10 March, 1998, as the Head of the legitimate government of the country. This development has facilitated the return of peace and stability to the country, thus creating the basis for the resumption of the development programme earlier initiated by his government. They therefore commended countries in the sub-region for their positive role as well as the collaborating efforts of OAU and the United Nations, in the process. They appealed to the international community to respond positively to the urgent reconstruction needs of the Sierra Leonean people through the provision of requisite assistance. In this regard, they welcomed the initiative of the UN Secretary-General in convening the Special Conference on Sierra Leone, which took place at the UN Headquarters in New York on 30 July 1998, and urged that the pledges made at that conference would be fully redeemed and in a timely manner.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with concern the lack of progress in the resolution of the crisis of Somalia. They reiterated the call that all Somali factional leaders cooperate in the search of a comprehensive and durable peace, in Somalia, by adhering to the various agreements reached over the past years, in particular the agreements concluded at Sodere (Ethiopia), Nairobi and Sanaa.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Cairo Accord signed in Cairo by the Somalia Factions in December 1997, and noted the outcome of the Addis Ababa Meeting of the National Salvation Council held in January 1998.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their full support for all efforts made by the international community, including regional actors, in particular the countries of IGAD, to assist in the resolution of the problem of Somalia. In this context, they stressed the need for coordination of all efforts for peace in Somalia with the regional initiative of IGAD.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their full support for the efforts of the United Nations, the OAU, the Arab League, and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference to assist in the resolution of the crisis in Somalia. They called upon the UN Secretary General to assist in peace efforts in Somalia.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed serious concern at the spiralling violence and increased insecurity arising from the intensification of intra and inter clan disputes, and called upon the Somali faction leaders to make a determined effort to bring an end to these intra and inter clan disputes, which have led to death and destruction of property and threaten to undermine humanitarian relief deliveries and impede the advancement of the peace and national reconciliation process in Somalia.
- The Heads of State or Government appealed to the international community to provide humanitarian, economic and reconstruction assistance to the people of Somalia in a well calibrated manner and with the goal of advancing the peace process and strengthening constituencies for peace.
- The Heads of State or Government recall their position on the political situation in Liberia at their XIIth Ministerial Conference in New Delhi, India, 7-9 April 1997. In this connection, they commended the people of Liberia for their resolve in bringing about a peaceful resolution of their civil conflict through the holding of free and fair presidential and legislative elections which were monitored and observed by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and the United Nations. They also commended the democratically elected government of H.E. Mr Charles Taylor, President of the Republic of Liberia. They noted that the peace process in Liberia was principally advanced by the efforts of the Sub-Regional Organisation ECOWAS and whose leadership they commended for displaying the strongest commitment to the resolution of the Liberian civil conflict. They expressed their appreciation to the international community for its humanitarian assistance to Liberia and welcomed the initiative of the donor community through the holding of a successful Donors Meeting on Liberia in April 1998, in Paris, France, and called upon the international community including Member States to support the reconstruction programme of Liberia.
- The Heads of State or Government examined the situation prevailing in Angola in the framework of the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. They commended the Government of Angola for the flexibility and political will demonstrated, aiming at a long and lasting peace in that country.
- The heads of State or Government held the leadership of UNITA, and specifically Mr Jonas Savimbi, personally accountable for the resumption of hostilities and deteriorating security situation in Angola, as evidenced by their persistent refusal to conform to the relevant decisions of the United Nations Security Council, regarding the Implementation of the Military and Political Aspects of the Lusaka Protocol, particularly, the demobilisation and disarmament of its troops, as well as the extension of State administration. In this regard, they strongly condemned UNITA for its acts of armed aggression and re-occupation of the territory already handed over to the State Administration thus creating an unfortunate outflow of refugees to the neighbouring countries and displaced persons, and called once again on the Leaders of UNITA to undertake the total and unconditional demobilisation of their troops in accordance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol.
- The Heads of State or Government appealed to the international community, in particular the United Nations Security Council to use all its power with a view to obliging UNITA to conform the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol. They also reiterated their appeal to the international community to increase the amount of humanitarian relief provided to the needy population as well as assistance for economic and social rehabilitation of Angola.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that Chagos Archipelago, including Diego Garcia, is an integral part of the sovereign territory of the Republic of Mauritius. In this regard, they reiterated their call to the former colonial power to pursue constructive dialogue expeditiously with Mauritius for the early return of Chagos Archipelago, including Diego Garcia, to the sovereignty of the Republic of Mauritius.
- The Heads of State or Government, recalling that the UN General Assembly's Resolution 3385 (XXX) admitted that Comoros, on 12 November 1975, as a Member of State composed of the islands of Anjouan, Grande Comore, Mayotte and Moheli, noted with deep concern that the separatist crisis, currently besetting the people and Government of the Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros, took inspiration in the decision of the former colonial administrative power to perpetuate its rule on the island of Mayotte.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised that this initial violation of principles of UN Resolution 1514 (XV), and the OAU Charter, was a major factor behind the chronic institutional disabilities, imposed by European mercenaries through repeated coups, political destabilisation, the assassination of two Heads of State, in May 1978 and November 1989, and the deportation of the third Head of State, to the French Overseas Department of Reunion, in September 1995. They expressed serious concern that the current separatist trends may be nourished to foster and ensure a total dislocation of the Comoros as a sovereign State and a recognised member of the International Community, with guaranteed territorial space along the lines fixed by the former colonial administrative power. They have expressed similar concern that this state of affairs may lead to total chaos and anarchy, within the island communities of the Archipelago, and thus enhance the potential for instability in the entire sub-region.
- The Heads of State or Government supported repeated calls by the Organisation of African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organisation of Islamic Conference, for the former colonial power to genuinely commit itself to the preservation of National Unity and Territorial Integrity of the Archipelago-State of Comoros, as demanded by International Law. They commended and underscored efforts to look into all options for an early and peaceful end to the separatist crisis, to be undertaken by the Regional Coordination for Crisis Resolution in the Comoros, as enacted and mandated by the Decision CM/Dec.405 (LXVIII)-Doc.Cm/2602 (LXVIII) of the 34th OAU Summit, held in June 1998, at Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
- The Heads of State or Government appealed to all parties concerned by the current level of the separatist crisis in the Comoros, to help pave the way for an early convening of an Inter-Comorian Conference, based on respect for National Unity and Territorial Integrity of the Archipelago-State, calling for larger autonomy, peace and shared prosperity for all the island communities. They welcomed and encouraged the firm commitment of the OAU Secretary General to organise, soon after the return to constitutional normality, a Round Table Donor Conference for Economic and Social Recovery of the Comoros, in close collaboration with specialised development agencies, at both regional and international levels.
- The heads of State or Government welcomed the joint mediation efforts of ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) and CPLP (Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries), within the framework of ECOWAS aimed at restoring peace in Guinea Bissau. In this regard, they recognised the need to respect the cease-fire agreed upon in Praia, Cape Verde on 26 August 1998, which constitutes an important step in enhancing peace and security in the sub-region. They therefore urged for the continuation of meaningful negotiations aimed at the peaceful resolution of the conflict.
ERITREA - ETHIOPIA
- The Heads of State and Government examined the situation prevailing between Eritrea and Ethiopia. They expressed their deep concern at this crisis between two brotherly countries. They welcomed the 34th OAU Summit decision sending a high level delegation to Addis Ababa and Asmara, as well as the efforts subsequently deployed by OAU with the view of helping promote a peaceful, fair and lasting solution to the crisis.
- The Heads of State and Government firmly supported the mediation efforts being undertaken by the OAU and appealed to Ethiopia and Eritrea to continue to cooperate fully in the search for a peaceful, fair and lasting solution to the dispute.
- The Heads of State or Government deplored the imposition and continued military enforcement of "No Fly Zones" on Iraq by individual countries without any authorisation from the UN Security Council or General Assembly.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the need to work diligently towards resolving the fate of 700 Iraqi civilians and military personnel who went missing after the military actions of 1991, and whose individual files have been submitted to ICRC. They also urged that help be extended to Iraq through UNESCO and other competent bodies for the restoration of all objects of art and antiquity stolen or smuggled out of Iraq during past years.
- The Heads of State or Government strongly condemned the repeated actions of Turkish armed forces violating the territorial integrity of Iraq under the pretext of fighting guerrilla elements hiding inside Iraqi territory. These actions of Turkish armed forces constitute stark illegal violations of the international boundaries mutually recognised between the two countries and a threat to regional and international peace and security. They also rejected the so-called "hot-pursuit" measures adopted by Turkey to justify such actions which are abhorrent to international law and to the norms of practice amongst States.
THE SITUATION BETWEEN IRAQ AND KUWAIT
- The Heads of State or Government reviewed the situation between Iraq and Kuwait and emphasised that all Member States in the Movement are committed to respect the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of both Kuwait and Iraq. They also emphasised that the full implementation of all relevant Security Council resolutions constitute the means of establishing peace, security and stability in the region. In this respect, they stressed the importance of Iraq to its completion of implementation of all relevant Security Council resolutions.
- In this respect, the Heads of State or Government stressed the need to resolve expeditiously the fate of all prisoners/detainees and missing persons of Kuwait and third country nationals by means of serious and sincere cooperation with International Committee of the Red Cross to reach a solution of this particular issue and to return the properties of the Government of Kuwait including official documents removed from national archives seized by Iraq.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their support and appreciation to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan, for the timely exercise of his leadership on seeking a diplomatic and peaceful solution on the crisis on Iraq as it was suggested by NAM on 11 February 1998. They also expressed their confidence that the agreement reached in Baghdad provided a diplomatic way out of the crisis on Iraq endorsed by the Security Council and contributed positively to the preservation of peace and security in the region.
- The Heads of State or Government reviewed the issue of human suffering in Iraq and positively noted recent developments that allow the import of essential civilian necessities by Iraq. In this respect, they welcomed the Security Council Resolution 1153(1998).
- The Heads of State or Government noted with deep concern the continuing deterioration of the humanitarian conditions of Iraqi population due to sanctions. Based upon the principles and decision of the Movement, they urge member states of the Movement to deploy their efforts to halt this tragedy and help in lifting the sanctions as soon as possible in accordance with relevant Security Council resolutions.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the fact that the Korean Peninsula still remain divided in spite of the desires and aspirations of the Korean people for reunification, and reaffirmed their support to the Korean people to reunify their homeland in accordance with the three principles set forth in the North-South Joint Statement on July 4, 1972 and through dialogue and negotiations on the basis of the Agreement on Reconciliation, Non-Aggression, and Cooperation and Exchange between the North and South concluded in February 1992.
- The Heads of State or Government considered the importance of guaranteeing a durable peace and security in the Korean Peninsula for the sake of the common prosperity of the Korean People as well as peace and security in North-East Asia and the rest of the world.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national unity of Afghanistan, and called on all States strictly to refrain from any outside interference in the internal affairs of Afghanistan. They stress that the main responsibility for finding a political solution to the conflict lay with the Afghan parties themselves.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the continuation of the military confrontation in Afghanistan, and called upon all States concerned to immediately end the supply of arms, ammunition, military equipment, training or other military support to all parties to the conflict in Afghanistan, including the presence and involvement of foreign military personnel.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned the capture of the Consulate-General of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Mazar-e-Sharif and demanded the safe and dignified passage out of Afghanistan of the personnel of the Consulate-General and other Iranian nationals missing in Afghanistan.
- The Heads of State or Government were convinced that there was no military solution to the Afghan conflict and called upon all Afghan parties to cease immediately all armed hostilities, to renounce the use of force and to engage, without preconditions, in a political dialogue aimed at achieving a lasting political settlement of the conflict.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed the hope that the Afghan parties would move towards national reconciliation in accordance with UN General Assembly resolutions 52/211, 51/195 and 51/108 in cooperation with the United Nations and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern about actions undermining the security of State frontiers, including the growing illicit traffic in arms by criminal elements and groups from certain areas of Afghanistan and about the use of Afghan territory for the training and harbouring of terrorists, which create a threat to peace and stability in the entire region, including Afghanistan.
- In this connection, the Heads of State or Government underlined the significance of Security Council resolution 1193 (1998) calling for an immediate and durable political solution to the situation in Afghanistan and urged all parties to implement this process.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the role of ASEAN in maintaining peace, stability and prosperity in the region and in enhancing cooperation in the wider Asia-Pacific region, and that of ARF in promoting dialogue and mutual confidence amongst its participants. They welcomed the progress of ASEAN's continuing efforts to realise the objective of establishing a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality in South-East Asia (ZOPFAN) and the entry into force of the Treaty on the South-East Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ). They regarded the establishment of SEANWFZ as an important contribution to peace, security and stability in the Asia Pacific region. For the effectiveness of the Treaty, they encouraged all nuclear-weapon States to extend their support and cooperation by acceding to the Protocol of the Treaty.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the need to resolve all sovereignty and jurisdictional disputes concerning the South China Sea by peaceful means without resort to force and/or threat to use force, and urged all parties to exercise restraint with a view to creating a positive climate for the eventual resolution of all contentious issues. They expressed concern over recent developments that may lead to a deterioration of peace and stability in the region. In this context, they supported the principles contained in the 1992 ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea, and stressed the need for the full implementation of such principles by all concerned. They expressed the hope that all concerned will refrain from further actions that may undermine peace, stability, trust and confidence in the region, including possibly undermining freedom of navigation and aviation in affected areas. They likewise urged the claimants to address the issue in various bilateral and multilateral fora, and in this regard reiterated the significance of promoting all types of confidence-building measures among all parties. To this end, they welcomed the Indonesian initiative in sponsoring the workshop on managing the potential conflict in the South China Sea and other measures launched by the concerned parties in the region to enhance cooperation and to ensure the peaceful settlement of all outstanding questions.
- The Heads of State and Government commended the Cambodian People and their King, His Majesty Norodom Sihanouk, for the successful organisation of a free and fair and democratic election on 26 July 1998 as witnessed by the international observers. They shared the satisfaction expressed by H.E. Mr. Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General on 7 August 1998 on the peaceful and orderly election. They urged the Cambodian parties to work towards the formation of a new government in a spirit of national reconciliation, in order to enable the Cambodian people to promote reconstruction and economic development. They expressed their appreciation to ASEAN, the Friends of Cambodia and the international community for their contribution to the efforts to restore political stability in Cambodia.
E. LATIN AMERICA
- The Heads of State or Government once again called upon the Government of the United States of America to put an end to the economic, commercial and financial actions against Cuba which, in addition to being unilateral and contrary to the United Nations Charter and international law, and to the principle of neighbourliness, cause huge material losses and economic damage to the people of Cuba. They called once again on the United States of America to settle its differences with Cuba through negotiations on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and requested strict compliance with Resolutions 47/19, 48/16, 49/9, 50/10,51/17, and 52/10 of the United Nations General assembly. They expressed deep concern over the widening of the extra-territorial nature of the embargo against Cuba and over continuous new legislative measures geared to intensifying it. They also urged the US government to return the territory now occupied by the Guantanamo Naval Base to Cuban sovereignty and to put an end to aggressive radio and TV transmissions against Cuba.
GUYANA AND VENEZUELA CONTROVERSY
- The Heads of State or Government took note of the firm commitment of Guyana and Venezuela to peacefully resolve the controversy which exist between them. In this regard, they fully supported the Parties in their decision to continue to avail themselves of the good offices of the UN Secretary General and his Special Representative in order to reach a final settlement as called for by the Geneva Agreement of 1966.
- The Heads of State and Government noted with satisfaction the significant progress made in the implementation of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1997 between Panama and the United States of America, known as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty, which recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of Panama over the entire extension of its territory and ensures the effective exercise of Panamanian jurisdiction.
- They noted with satisfaction that the transition process established in the said treaty for the orderly transfer of the Canal to Panama was taking place with cordiality between the two countries. They especially welcomed the fact that this process will culminate on 31 December 1999, at which time the Canal and its installations will be fully transferred to the proprietorship of the Republic of Panama and the total withdrawal of all foreign military bases from Panama should be completed. They expressed their appreciation of the Panamanian people for these historic achievements, which will be milestones in the process of world decolonisation.
- They further noted with deep satisfaction the measures adopted by the Government of Panama for the purpose of continuing to guarantee the efficient functioning of the Canal and its uninterrupted use by ships of all nations once Panama assumes full responsibility for its control, operation and administration.
- They recognised the importance of the peaceful and secure use of the Canal to world commerce and navigation, and in that context, underlined the importance of its policy of neutrality and called upon the states to adhere to the Protocol to the Treaty concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal, which proclaim the permanent neutrality of the Panama Canal.
CHAPTER III: ECONOMIC ISSUES
THE NEW CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION
- The Heads of State or Government acknowledged the dramatic changes underway in the global economy through the deepening and widening processes of globalisation and liberalisation. They noted that the global economy continues to be characterised by rapid growth in flows of trade, finance, information and technology, which has led to increased interdependence among countries. They also recognised that countries interact with the global economy from vastly different levels of development and that, accordingly, the impact of globalisation and liberalisation is highly uneven. They stressed that while the current trend was expected to lead to increasing economic opportunity for developing economies, it is evident that a large number of NAM Member States continue to be marginalised and thus unable to share the benefits of these processes. The Heads of State or Government observed that most developing countries continue to confront problems of access to markets, capital and technology, and many grapple with the institutional transformation necessary for meaningful integration into the world economy. They expressed their deep apprehension at the onset of weakening and intensifying financial crises that undermine both the progress and the prospects for development. The ability to exploit new opportunities depends on the economic, technological and institutional capacities of individual developing countries to enter the global market. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government noted with concern that the globalisation process has deepened the technological, financial and productive gap between developed and developing countries, as well as widened inequalities between the rich and the poor. Hence, they agreed that the central focus of international development efforts should be in the creation of an enabling environment where developing countries would be able to acquire the requisite capacities to successfully enter, compete and benefit from globalisation.
- The Heads of State or Government acknowledged that the emergence of the strengthened rules-based trading system, as institutionalised in the newly-established World Trade Organisation (WTO), may facilitate positive integration of countries into the global trading system if the commitment to this objective is strengthened. In this regard, they noted with concern that LDC's, most of which are in Africa, and other developing countries remain constrained by weak supply capacities and are unable to benefit from the growth in international trade. At the same time, many developing countries, including LDC's, continue to face tariff and non-tariff barriers in industrialised country markets to their exports in sectors where they have achieved comparative and competitive advantages. They expressed grave concern that the combination of constraints on supply capacity and persistent restrictions to access to large industrial markets has resulted in a situation where many developing countries' share of international trade continues to decline.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the first ever special meeting of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) with the participation of the Bretton Woods Institutions held in New York on 18 April 1998 and encouraged the holding of such high-level meetings on a regular basis. They welcomed the UN General Assembly's decision to hold the first two-day high level dialogue in September 1998 on the theme of the social and economic impact of globalisation and interdependence and their policy implications. They further encouraged both developed and developing countries to actively engage in such dialogue in the spirit of genuine partnership with a view to reaching a meaningful and successful conclusion and strengthening international and economic cooperation for development.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with concern the growing marginalisation of the Least Developed Countries in world trade, with their total export continuing to be under 0.4% of global exports. The prospect of their losing out further had considerably increased with ongoing globalisation. In particular, the Least Developed Countries had encountered this process with a distinct disadvantage. They therefore urged all countries, particularly the developed ones, to coordinate and implement strategies so that the products from all least developed countries gained easy and preferential access to external markets.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that high growth in some developing countries was contributing significantly to the locomotive forces of world economic growth and thus the process of global integration of developing countries was paying dividends to the industrialised countries as well. In recent years, the economic growth of developing countries had continued to outpace that of developed countries as a whole. It was, however, regrettable that the voice of developing countries in decision-making still did not realistically reflect their emergence as important actors in the world economy. They urged developed countries to give this cumulative contribution and role meaningful and commensurate recognition. The participation of developing countries in global economic decision-making, particularly in the international financial institutions, as well as in trade and other economic areas, should thus be enhanced. They reiterated the need for such democratisation and transparency in international economic and financial decision making in all fora and at all levels, with the full participation of developing countries so as to ensure that their development interests would be fully taken into account.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the need to establish an open, rule-based, accountable, predictable, just, equitable, comprehensive, development oriented and non-discriminatory global system of economic relations, especially at a time when developing countries are actively engaged in the process of liberalisation and integration into the global economy. They therefore reaffirmed that there is no alternative other than a constructive dialogue between developed and developing countries. Such a dialogue should be based on common interests, mutual benefits, genuine interdependence and shared responsibilities.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that low wages and environmental standards in developing countries were not responsible for the loss of jobs in developed countries. Developed countries should address their unemployment problems through the implementation of appropriate macro-economic and structural policies. The problem of unemployment would not be solved by protectionism. However, while developing countries were committed to promoting all relevant labour standards, they rejected their use for protectionist purposes. They urged the developed countries to undertake necessary structural adjustments and refrain from protectionist tendencies against competitive imports from developing countries and against FDI outflows to them, in the interest of new growth opportunities.
- The Heads of State or Government affirmed that the ILO is the only international body competent to set and deal with labour standards. They reaffirmed that the most urgent task before the ILO is to promote social justice through the creation of employment in the developing countries, thereby ensuring the greatest good of the greatest number of workers in all parts of the world, particularly in the developing countries. They reiterated that there is no linkage between trade and labour standards and rejected all attempts to establish such a linkage as well as the use of labour standards as a pretext for unilateral actions in the field of trade. They reaffirmed that efforts to link trade with labour standards obstructed the attainment of the objectives for which the ILO was created and rendered the implementation of values and principles of the ILO more difficult.
- The Heads of State or Government were concerned about the implications of the developed countries favouring certain economies in the North and trading blocs, while many of the countries of the Movement continue to be burdened by economic stagnation and social backwardness. They stressed the need for developing countries to seize the initiative by placing on the multilateral agenda issues that are of particular interest to them. They agreed to the need for developing countries to become more proactive in devising a positive WTO multilateral agenda that will address their pressing and unique socio-economic needs.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that the above will require greater coordination among the developing countries to enhance their capacity for action and approach new problems with an integrated vision. The Movement, while subscribing to the values of environmental protection, labour standards, intellectual property protection, sound macro-economic management and promotion and protection of human rights, rejects all attempts to use these issues as conditionalities and pretexts for restricting market access or aid and technology flows to developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised that the achievement of the objectives of the Non-Aligned Movement of poverty eradication economic and social progress sustained economic growth and sustainable development depended on a more favourable and dynamic international economic environment and revitalised international development cooperation supportive of developing countries' efforts.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the significant and far-reaching reforms undertaken by the United Nations especially during the 52nd Session of the General Assembly. Mindful of the United Nation's developmental role, they stressed the need to provide to the UN timely and adequate resources for the fulfilment of its mandate in the economic and social fields. They also called for the reform of the Bretton Woods institutions and the WTO to enhance their efficiency in meeting global challenges.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the decision by Ministers at the Second WTO Ministerial held in Geneva in 1998 to work towards improving coherence in international economic policy-making, while avoiding the imposition on Governments of cross-conditionality or additional conditions, with a view to maximising the contribution that an open, rule-based trading system can make to fostering stable growth for economies at all levels of development. In the case of LDC's, the Heads of State or Government reiterated the call by Ministers at the Second Ministerial that WTO members, in cooperation with the WTO Secretariat and other agencies, implement the Integrated Plan of Action for the Least Developed Countries which had been agreed to at the First WTO Ministerial, in Singapore in 1996, and taken forward at the High-Level Meeting on Least Developed Countries held in Geneva, October 1997.
AGENDA FOR DEVELOPMENT
- The Heads of State or Government urged that the role of the United Nations in promoting international economic cooperation for development be strengthened. They reiterated their support for UN bodies, programmes, funds and specialised agencies which served the developmental objectives of developing countries. They stressed that in strengthening the role of the United Nations in development there was a need to preserve and reinforce the distinctive and separate role and identity of the operational Funds and Programmes. They welcomed the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance, including for Human and International Capacity Building, to support Least-Developed Countries in their trade and trade-related activity endorsed by the High Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for Least-Developed Countries' Trade and Development, held in Geneva from 27-28 October 1997. They urged that these initiatives be implemented to integrate Least-Developed Countries into the global economic system under the WTO.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the importance of UNCTAD as the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of development and interrelated issues in the areas of commodities, trade, finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. They highlighted the role of UNCTAD in assisting developing countries to integrate themselves into the world economy and in building a development perspective within ongoing and future trade negotiations. In this respect, they recalled the Midrand Declaration and, while looking forward to the consolidation of UNCTAD's reforms, stressed the role of UNCTAD in operating the International Trade Centre (ITC). They emphasised the essential restoration of the Centre's current budgetary and administrative arrangements.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed concern at the continuing decline in the availability of core resources to UN Funds and Programmes, especially the UNDP. They noted with satisfaction the growing number of programme countries which contributed to enhance core resources of the UN Funds and Programmes, despite constraints, and stressed the need for donor countries to substantially increase their voluntary contributions to these resources. They also urged UN Funds and Programmes to utilise the available resources for the essential priorities of the developing countries, which remained eradication of poverty and sustained economic growth and sustainable development. They stressed the central role of the UN in promoting international cooperation for development and facilitating an international economic environment conducive to development, and called for this to be strengthened. They called on the UN system to support the developmental objectives of developing countries through greater emphasis on technical assistance. They also urged UN Funds and Programmes to enhance the utilisation of available resources for the essential priorities of the developing countries for eradication of poverty and sustained economic growth and sustainable development, including through increased provision of technical assistance.
- The Heads of States or Government expressed their concern for the evident lack of political will by the developed countries to revitalise international cooperation for development. In this sense, they expressed their deep concern at the reduction in official development assistance and called on the developed countries to ensure the fulfilment of their commitment to meet the United Nation target of 0.7% of the GNP as official development assistance for the developing countries and also to ensure that within that target 0.15% to 0.2% of GNP be earmarked for the least developed countries.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the need for strong political commitment by the international community for the successful implementation of the Agenda for Development. They also stressed the importance of mobilising adequate resources for the implementation so that it can contribute effectively to diminishing existing imbalances and guarantee sustained economic growth in the developing countries. To ensure the effective implementation of the Agenda, they urged that the follow-up and assessment mechanism of the Agenda be seriously undertaken by the General Assembly. They also stressed the importance of dialogue on strengthening international cooperation for development through partnership based on the mutuality of interests and benefits, shared responsibilities and genuine interdependence.
- The Agenda must also pay due attention to the human being, the improvement of the quality of life, the eradication of hunger, disease, illiteracy, overcrowding and unemployment. Based on the results of the World Summit for Social Development, the Agenda should reflect the practical measures required to eradicate poverty, the fulfilment of basic needs and the generation of employment. They emphasise that the improvement of education and the status of women were equally essential for development.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the need to hold a high level international conference on financing for development. In this context, they noted the process launched by UN General Assembly Resolution 52/179. They stressed that an international conference on financing for development should be held no later than the year 2001.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption of UNGA Resolution 52/179, paving the way for a preparatory process for high-level, international, intergovernmental consideration on financing for development. They reiterated that finance for development was crucial for developing countries and that consideration of this issue should build on existing processes and commitments, review of institutional and other mechanisms and address the new challenges arising both from the growing significance of new stakeholders and the dynamics of globalisation and liberalisation. They believed that there was an objective need for and an acknowledged interest to the entire international community to engage into a thorough study of the underlying global causes of the current financial crisis as well as on how best to safeguard against future occurrences. They noted that the process launched by the adoption of Resolution 52/179 provided the international community with the historic opportunity to enable the UN to discharge its responsibilities in the area of development, as envisaged under the Charter.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined that in the area of development assistance, it was imperative that new and additional financial resources be provided by developed countries, and that technology be transferred on preferential and concessional terms to developing countries, if the consensus built in the recent series of United Nations international conferences and other consensus agreements were to be kept.
INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND COMMODITIES
- The Heads of State or Government noted that this year marks 50 years of the multilateral trading system, and although the international community has reason to celebrate the progress that has been made towards the establishment and consolidation of the multilateral trading system, however, much more remains to be done to ensure that the global trading regime is truly equitable, benefiting developing and developed countries alike. In this regard, the strengthening of special and differential treatment for developing countries, removal of market access barriers, in developed countries, against the exports of developing countries, and full implementation of commitments in areas of particular interest to developing countries, such as textiles and agriculture, are some of the measures that need to be taken urgently. In support of this, they proposed the timely phasing out of restrictive quotas under the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing. These measures need to be accompanied by an unequivocal commitment that non-trade issues as social issues, will not be introduced in the agenda of the WTO.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that in a considerable number of crucial areas the negotiated results of the Uruguay Round fell short of the expectations of the developing countries. They regretted that the implementation of the Uruguay Round in areas of export interest to developing countries has been inadequate and tardy. Trading opportunities of developing countries were neutralised by the use of protectionist measures by developed countries, including those taken unilaterally and in the guise of technical standards, environmental, social, or human rights-related concerns. They agreed that developing countries should consult closely while formulating their positions on the issues being addressed by the World Trade Organisation. In this regard they urged developing countries to work together to elaborate a forward looking agenda in the framework of multilateral trade negotiations which would incorporate issues of concern to the developing countries, and would thereby enable them to take the initiative in such negotiations. They therefore reaffirmed the full implementation of the Uruguay Round agreements and to that end, urged developed countries and the WTO to provide technical assistance to enable them to carry out their commitments.
- The Heads of State or Government declared that the World Trade Organisation should contribute to realising and expanding an open, predictable, equitable, non-discriminatory and secure multilateral trading system, based on clear and transparent procedures as well as the protection of the rights and interests of the developing countries. They considered, furthermore, that it must be governed by principles of universality in its deliberations and equity with regard to participation and preferential and differential treatment for developing countries. It is also of primary importance that its relationship with the United Nations system be defined at the earliest, including the coordination mechanisms between both institutions. Pursuant to the 1996 Singapore Ministerial Declaration, they noted the progress made in defining the WTO's relationship with UNCTAD, including the coordination mechanisms between both institutions, which should be further strengthened.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed serious concern over the disturbing tendencies of developed countries to link further liberalisation in agreed upon areas with concessions to liberalise areas of interest to them. They emphasised that for the success of the multilateral trading system, and for equitable benefits for all, it was essential to ensure the full and faithful implementation of the existing multilateral agreements. They also noted the decision by the Second WTO Ministerial Meeting to establish a process to agree on a work programme that should respond to the particular interests and concerns of developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government urged the developed countries to:
- Urgently implement the Uruguay Round Agreements, especially in areas of export interest to developing countries, including the agricultural, textile and clothing sectors, and decisions and measures in favour of least developed countries, as provided for in the Marrakesh Ministerial Declaration.
- Provide preferential market access through improved and strengthened GSP and other preferential schemes, and extension of their scope to cover new areas and sectors now in the World Trade Organisation.
- Refrain from introducing extraneous issues into the agenda of the WTO, particularly issues with no direct relevance to trade.
- Assist developing countries to take advantage of new trading opportunities and address difficulties faced by them in major markets and trade in services, such as tariff peaks, preference erosion, tariff escalation and the multiplication as well as misuse of anti-dumping measures and countervailing duties.
- Ensure that the international trading system fully reflected the development perspective by ensuring implementation of the provisions for special and differential treatment for developing countries.
- Ensure the participation of developing countries in standard and quality setting.
- Implement TRIPS commitments related to the provision of technical assistance to developing countries.
- Provide greater concessions for the implementation of WTO agreements by the developing countries.
- Promote a more flexible access to developing countries' trade organisations to the WTO markets information.
- The Heads of State or Government invited preference-giving countries to continue to improve, renew and widen the scope of coverage of their Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) schemes in keeping with the post-Uruguay Round trading system and with the objective of integrating developing countries, especially the least developed countries, into the international trading system, and stressed that ways and means should be found to ensure more effective utilisation of those schemes, particularly by the least developed countries. They stressed their opposition to the use of GSP as a tool of coercion. They also stressed that it was essential to enhance the GSP with the aim of significantly promoting certainty, stability and predictability in market access for developing countries' exports. They agreed that there was an urgent need for improving the GSP schemes deepening the preferences and widening the coverage of products of interest to developing countries, and the establishment of objective criteria for graduation. They called for the granting of duty-free market access to the Least Developed Countries as a matter of urgency.
- The Head of State or Government welcomed the offer by the Government of Thailand to host the tenth session of UNCTAD in Bangkok in the year 2000. They looked forward to UNCTAD X as a means towards strengthening the mandate and role of UNCTAD on trade and development and providing important policy directions to advance global partnership for economic cooperation for the next millennium. They committed themselves to launching a successful process of preparation for UNCTAD X.
- The Heads of State or Government called upon UNCTAD to play an active role in the following broad areas:
(a) providing objective and in-depth analyses of the effects of liberalisation and of any proposals for further liberalisation,
(b) strengthening the capacity of developing countries to participate in trade negotiations,
(c) strengthening the supply capacity of developing countries especially the LDC's in order to ensure that these countries are able to benefit from the opportunities that may be created as a result of liberalisation,
(d) make recommendations to promote coherence between global economic policies so that the ability of the developing countries to benefit from increasing trade is not compromised by imperfections in financial markets, and
(e) to examine and make recommendations to ensure that structural factors such as debt, inadequate concessional development finance and restrictions on the transfer of technology do not impede the developing countries from availing the opportunities presented by the Multilateral Trading System.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the discussion taken by the Second WTO Ministerial Conference which recognised the risk of marginalisation of least developed countries and small economies. In this respect, they proposed that the specificities and needs of small States be taken into account, bearing in mind their remoteness, diseconomies of scale, lack of natural resource endowment, lack of resilience of their economies, limitation of their domestic markets and capacity for mobilising domestic savings, disadvantages in attracting foreign direct investment, vulnerability and fragility of their economies. In this regard, they strongly recommend that, in the preparation of the Third WTO Ministerial Conference scheduled in 1999 in the United States, consideration be given for the adoption of a Programme of Action in favour of small economies with a view to facilitating their integration into the world trading system.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned persistence by certain states in intensifying unilateral coercive measures and exercise of domestic legislation with extraterritorial effects against developing countries. Such actions include blockades, embargoes and freezing of assets with the purpose of preventing these countries from exercising the right to fully determine their political, economic and social system and freely expand their international trade. They further stressed the need to contribute more effectively to increase the role of developing countries in the international economic system and the need to equal and non-discriminatory rights of all countries to join the international trading system and the necessity to keep the World Trade Organisation and its membership procedure non-political and economic-oriented.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the increased recourse by the major trading countries to actions, such as extraterritorial measures, that are incompatible and in conflict with international rules and regulations agreed upon in the WTO. They were further concerned at the unjustified and excessive use of anti-dumping measures to the detriment of the trade of developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned the present trend geared at strengthening coercive economic measures on developing countries and reaffirmed that no state may use or encourage the use of economic, political or any other type of measures to coerce another state, including non-extension of MFN status. They also rejected the expansion of such trends, and called upon states applying unilateral coercive measures to put an immediate end to those measures.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed concern about the adverse effects of the use of coercive economic measures on the economy and development efforts of developing countries and noted that such measures had a wide negative impact on international economic cooperation and on world-wide efforts to move towards a non-discriminatory and open trading system.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the need to preserve and widen the preferences received by a significant group of developing countries under the Lomé Convention and other such agreements recognised by the WTO.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the importance of commodities in a large number of the countries of the South who overwhelmingly depend on commodities and raw material. The share of these commodities in their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and export earnings largely conditioned not only their other economic growth and development but also their ability to service their respective international debt obligations.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the need to equal and non discriminatory right of all countries to join the international trading system and the necessity to guaranty the Universality of WTO and its membership procedure thus excluding political and non-economic conditionalities or obstacles.
- The Heads of State or Government observed that developments related to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) had brought little or no tangible benefits to the countries of the South because of the lukewarm treatment given to commodity issues. On average the overall benefits to the North had tended to be much steeper than was the case for the developing countries of the South. Over and above this, the escalation of tariffs had also lessened prospects for the countries of the South, given the removal of preferential margins earlier enjoyed under the former Generalised System of Preferences (GSP).
- The Heads of State or Government therefore underscored the need to focus more attention on commodities and extend the range of commodities traded. They called upon the international community to support the efforts of developing countries to improve the production, processing, product diversification, marketing, distribution and transportation of commodities, and to facilitate the exploitation of opportunities resulting from advances in science and technology. They agreed to strengthen the role of the Common Fund for Commodities in line with the Five Year Action Plan (1998 - 2003) adopted at the Ninth Annual Session of the Common Fund in Bali, Indonesia.
- The Heads of State or Government committed themselves to strengthening international cooperation in the field of commodities. They called upon the international community to support the efforts of the developing countries to improve the processing, marketing, distribution and transportation of commodities and in this regard to take advantage of new advances in science and technology. They also called on the developed countries to improve access to their markets through the lifting of tariff and non-tariff barriers and the abolition of subsidies that obstructed commodity exports of developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their profound concern over the continued decline of agricultural products in the international trade system and urged the developed countries to refrain from new and hidden protectionism against the agricultural products of the developing countries.
FINANCIAL, INVESTMENT AND MONETARY ISSUES
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that aid could not be replaced by foreign direct investment, which so far had been restricted to a handful of developing countries. Indeed, the flow of aid was required for the creation of conditions in developing countries, particularly the least developed, which would enable them to invest in their infrastructure and make the investment climate more favourable to foreign entrepreneurs.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the considerable importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) for the development of their respective countries, promotion of transfer of technology, including environmentally sound and safe technologies, building up of endogenous capacities and generation of employment. They attached particular importance to FDI inflows in the infrastructure and manufacturing sectors. They noted that NAM countries had taken several steps to create a climate conducive to FDI inflows. They called upon major industrialised countries to take complementary steps so that the actions undertaken by the developing countries could have maximum impact and prevent their marginalisation in the global economy. They also noted that the extent and spread of FDI inflows into developing countries remained uneven. Furthermore, many developing countries were not in a position to attract sufficient FDI. They, therefore, reiterated that FDI can only complement concessional finance and cannot replace it.
- The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the globalisation process had encouraged flows of FDI from industrialised to developing countries and highlighted the role of transnational corporations (TNC's) in economic growth. However, a concentration of these flows in some geographic areas had continued, leaving some others, in particular LDC's, without access to them and without the possibility of having the investment multiplier effect to generate the necessary developments for some important sectors. FDI had been selective, and its flows had been driven to countries where the rates of return were importantly high.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the continued examination of the relationship between trade and investment issues by UNCTAD and the WTO. They called on UNCTAD to continue its work in identifying and analysing the implications for development of issues relevant to a possible multilateral framework on investment, taking fully into account the interest of developing countries. They stressed the need for this work to be conducted on the basis of universality and democratic participation taking into account the interests and concerns of developing countries. They also reaffirmed their commitment to actively participate in discussions on this issue, so as to promote and defend their interests.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern at the recent financial and economic crisis experienced by Asian countries. The extremely large funds moving in and out of countries with unprecedented rapidity and unpredictability as well as the massive trade in currencies for speculative purposes, had certainly contributed its share to the making of the crisis. Recognising the possible global repercussions, they underlined the need for a specific regulatory framework for the financial and exchange markets. They further recognised the essential need to ensure the transparency of the capital flows of private sectors with a view to strengthening the early warning system and improving the crisis management to mitigate the possible adverse impact of such financial crises in the future.
- The Heads of State or Government urged UNCTAD, in collaboration with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, to study the abovementioned developments and to suggest measures in order to strengthen the global financial system. The international financial institutions should create and enhance mechanisms, including surveillance mechanisms, technical assistance and adequate information facilities, so as to prevent financial crises and neutralise their adverse effects, and recommend ways and means on how developing countries could implement mechanisms to discourage speculative capital flows.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled that the Seventh Summit of the NAM in 1983 called for the convening of an international conference on money and finance for development, to pursue the comprehensive reform of the existing inequitable and outdated international monetary and financial system. In this context of profound changes in the international economic environment, the Heads of State or Government also recognised the need to initiate the necessary measures to realising the convening of an international conference on international financial and monetary cooperation with a view to reforming the prevailing international monetary and financial system and meeting effectively the development and other financing requirements of the international community, particularly the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the proposal by Madagascar of appropriate mechanisms of the Movement, for the development of its Members, such as a monetary fund, a commodities fund, a fund for social and economic development, in addition to the actions of the international financial institutions and the international community.
- The Heads of State or Government called upon the Bretton Woods Institutions not to link their credit facilities with non-economic issues particularly security matters. They emphasised that these Institutions should resist efforts by certain countries to use them to promote their narrow interests. They stated that these institutions should extend their maximum help to developing countries facing serious liquidity problems.
- The Heads of States or Government further urged the developed countries, acting in concert with developing countries, as well as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the United Nations, to accelerate the review of the world financial system with the objective of ensuring that short-term capital flows were supportive of expanding trade, employment and development. They also stressed that a review of the world financial system and the Bretton Woods Institutions should be carried out on a truly multilateral basis, and through a democratic process.
- The Heads of State or Government, while welcoming the liberalisation of the financial sector in many developing countries, and while recognising the growing importance of finance, especially banking and securities trading, the Heads of State or Government called on developed countries and the international financial institutions to assist developing countries that undertook financial liberalisation with adequate resources to address the destabilising effects of short-term capital flows. They therefore agreed that there was a need for the existence of a multilateral surveillance mechanism, the main responsibility of which was to identify the nature, and minimise the impact of speculative flows on the developing world's financial stability and ensure the soundness of the financial system. The nature, form and mandate of such a multilateral surveillance mechanism should be the subject of universal consultations on the basis of mutuality of interests and interdependence of world economies.
- The Heads of State and Government stressed that the International Conference on Money and Finance should go far beyond Official Development Assistance (ODA) and financial flows. It should define an international economic climate conducive to creating a model for a new international financial system capable of preventing financial crises which often threatened the sovereignty of states.
- The Heads of State or Government declared that the implementation of the commitments adopted by various international conferences in the economic and social fields required the mobilisation of a substantial volume of new and additional resources to developing countries. It is not sufficient to rely on the shifting of priorities or reallocation of national budget and Official Development Assistance. They called upon the developed countries, that have not done so, to fulfil the commitment to allocate 0.7% of their GNP to official development assistance. The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to continue utilising aid effectively.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their support for the "20/20 concept" as endorsed by the World Summit for Social Development, calling for a mutual commitment between interested developed and developing country partners to allocate, on average 20% of the Official Development Assistance and 20% of the national budget, respectively, to basic social programmes. They also called on the Bretton Woods institutions to respect the "20/20 concept" in their dealings with the developing countries that have accepted the "20/20 concept".
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the need to increase the capital base of the World Bank and the regional development banks in order to contribute more effectively to mobilising world savings and to channel them towards projects and programmes of developing countries. To this end, they also called on the creditor developed countries for an increase in IMF resources, including the allocation of new development-oriented Special Drawing Rights.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that the content and objectives of Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) should be transformed, as in their current emphasis, the issues of poverty reduction are not given much attention. Although there is empirical evidence for some of the developing countries, that economic growth improves the socio-economic conditions of the people, for most of the developing countries especially the least developed countries (LDC's), a rather poor response to adjustment highlights the fact that ESAF has not sufficiently solved the problem of poverty. This calls for the IMF and the World Bank to incorporate poverty alleviation and employment creation policies when designing the financial programmes for developing countries, which act as a framework upon which ESAF programmes are designed. They expressed concern that a large number of countries that have been performing well, using ESAF benchmarks as criteria, are still facing increasing levels of poverty and unemployment.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that the evolving debt strategy must be accompanied by a favourable and supportive international economic environment, including the full implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and the Marrakesh Ministerial decisions in favour of the least developed countries and the nett food-importing developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the need for new financial flows to debtor developing countries from all sources, in addition to debt-relief measures that include debt cancellation, and debt-relief measures, and urged creditor countries and multilateral financial institutions to continue to extend concessional financial assistance, particularly to the least developed countries (LDC's), in order to support the implementation of economic reforms and stabilisation and structural adjustment programmes by the developing countries that will enable them to extricate themselves from the debt overhang and attract new investment and to assist them in achieving sustained economic growth and sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. Cancellation of the debt of developing countries is a request to be addressed in particular to developed countries so that they will shoulder their responsibilities towards debt-related problems and work for the reduction or cancellation of LDC's debts. In this context, they recalled the appeals presented for the solution of the problem of external debt through, inter alia, its recycling into development priorities of the developing countries concerned.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that for many developing countries, in particular LDC's, the external debt service still constituted a major factor of resources deviation, some of which could be used to alleviate such urgent needs as infrastructure, basic services, education and health. In this regard, they welcomed the initiative of the international financial institutions to support the heavily-indebted poor countries in their endeavours to resolve the external debt problem of those countries. However, they noted with concern the slow progress made in implementing the HIPC's Initiative. They further encouraged early and urgent application of debt relief measures, particularly within the context of the HIPC's Initiative, and committed themselves to creating the environments within their countries that were conducive to exploiting the benefits these countries would derive from relief and assistance measures. In this context, they reiterated the message conveyed by the Chairman of the Movement to the Leaders of the Group of Eight on the occasion of their Summits in Lyon, Denver and Birmingham, regarding the refinement of the HIPC's Initiative so that the requirement of a six-year period of structural adjustment be reduced to three, that the level of debt reduction by the Paris Club be increased from 80% to 90% and that the terms for reduction of multilateral debt be substantially eased. They also pointed out that it was important not to introduce new conditionality.
- The Heads of State or Government called on the international community, including the United Nations system, and invited the Bretton Woods institutions, as well as the private sector, to take appropriate measures and action for the implementation of the commitments, agreements and decisions of the major United Nations conferences and summits organised since the beginning of the 1990's on developments related to the question of external debt.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that while acknowledging the importance of the HIPC initiative, the fiscal burden of meeting debt-service payments, even after debt relief, would remain heavy for most of the least developing countries. They called upon the Bretton Woods institutions to increase HIPC debt relief so that scarce resources were released to cater for economic development and poverty alleviation.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled the Declaration on UNIDO adopted at the XIth Summit of the Movement and stressed the continuing importance and relevance of UNIDO as the central coordinating agency in the UN system in the field of industrial development. They welcomed the reform process undertaken successfully by UNIDO, to enhance its effectiveness with a firm stand for supporting and promoting industrial development and for providing specialised technical services. They re-affirmed their commitment to support and strengthen UNIDO in the spirit of global partnership and mutual benefit. They underscored the need to secure the future of UNIDO as a specialised agency vital to the promotion of industrial development in developing countries in the context of the multilateral development co-operation system.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the importance of industrial development for developing countries, especially those in Africa and the important role played by UNIDO in this regard. They called upon the international community including the relevant organisations and bodies of the United Nations and in particular UNIDO to support the implementation of the Programme for the Second Industrial Development Decade for Africa so as to enable African countries to intensify and expand industrial cooperation among themselves.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed UNIDO's new Business Plan which includes a focus on LDC's and Africa, emphasising SMME development and agro-based industries, and decentralisation by strengthening field representation to ensure greater contact with developments within countries and regions.
- The Heads of State or Government, recognising the critical role foreign direct investment (FDI) plays in the economic growth and development process in developing countries, pledged their support for the strategic investment alliance between UNCTAD and UNIDO, to work towards enhancing the complementarities and coordination of their work with regard to promoting investment in developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that many developing countries face serious constraints in their industrialisation and diversification efforts due to lack of technical, financial and human resource capacity. Such impediments undermine the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SME's) which are important sources of employment for the vast majority in these countries. They therefore called on developed countries, multilateral institutions and donors to provide the necessary resources to assist developing and least developed countries (LDC's) in overcoming these obstacles to their industrialisation programmes.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
- The Heads of State or Government recognised that pressure on the natural resource base coupled with inter alia economic and social factors limit growth and development in developing countries, particularly those still dependent on agriculture as a lead sector. They reiterated the need to improve agricultural performance to ensure sustainable use and proper management of natural resources by, inter alia, adopting policies that promote sustainable agricultural technologies and practices that improve productivity. Thus, they urged Member Countries to implement comprehensive approaches to development that will take into account the existing conditions and requirements in individual countries.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the right to food was a fundamental human right and its promotion constitutes a moral imperative for the international community. Therefore, they emphatically rejected the use of food as an instrument of economic or political pressure.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that in spite of the advances made by the Uruguay Round, the accords on agriculture will lead only to a partial trade liberalisation, and serious distortions will persist in the agricultural commodity markets even after their full implementation. They expressed their deep concern about the negative effects of these accords on the developing countries, particularly the Least Developed Countries and the nett food importing countries. Accordingly, they considered it necessary to undertake studies on the impact of the new multilateral trading system on food supply and its possible consequences on food security, particularly in developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with concern that agricultural export subsidies, market price support schemes and direct payments paid by major developed countries, have had serious negative impact on prices and trade in agricultural products of developing countries. These subsidies have restricted developing country access to industrial country markets and third markets, and have limited the ability of developing countries in general and least developed countries (LDC's) in particular, to produce and export on the basis of their comparative advantage. In the circumstances, they identified their interest in developing and sustaining a vibrant rural and agricultural economy based on comparative advantages and free from these distortions. To this end, they expressed the need to address these and related issues in the next round of multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture scheduled to commence in 1999.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the commitment of the WTO at its Second Ministerial Conference held in Geneva in May 1998 to continue to improve market access for products exported by the developing countries and the least-developing countries on as broad a basis as possible, and called upon developed countries to remove any distortionary measures in their agricultural policies that impact negatively on international trade in agricultural products.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the increasing attention paid to product standards and standards for production and process methods, particularly in agricultural products, aimed at ensuring food safety in developed countries. They recognised the need to ensure that systems and processes of production and control deliver wholesome and healthy products. However, they pointed out that such technical regulations, particularly in agriculture and health, should be transparent and applied in a non-discriminatory manner, based on scientific information, research and international standards in order to ensure that they are not used for protectionist purposes and thereby create an unnecessary obstacle to legitimate international trade. To this end, the Heads of State or Government committed themselves to monitor international developments and practices in the area of technical regulations and work together in coordinating their efforts in this regard, in order to ensure that these measures are not used to undermine or prejudice their legitimate trade interests, particularly in those areas in which they have or are able to develop comparative advantage.
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
- The Heads of State or Government recalled that the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, includes a statement of commitment to Agenda 21 and to the goals of sustainable development; an assessment of progress made since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in all main areas of Agenda 21 and other outcomes of the Conference; a broad range of decisions and recommendations aimed at fostering progress in various sectoral and cross-sectoral areas of Agenda 21 and, in particular in its means of implementation; decisions aimed at strengthening global and regional institutional arrangements for achieving sustainable development; and recommendations on the future methods of work of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and the programme of work of the Commission for the period 1998 - 2002. They noted the setting up of a High Level Task Force on strengthening of UNEP and Habitat by the United Nations Secretary General and reiterated their commitment to these two bodies. They called for provision of necessary resources to enable them to strengthen their capacities for implementation, within existing mandates, including technical assistance to developing countries. In this regard, they noted the report prepared by the Task Force and called for its thorough consideration by the UN General Assembly during its Fifty-third Session.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised that since UNCED, substantial efforts have been made by developing countries to integrate environmental, economic and social objectives into decision-making by elaborating new policies and strategies for achieving sustainable development. At the same time, they expressed their concern at the disappointing lack of fulfilment of international commitments voluntarily undertaken by industrialised countries at the Rio Earth Summit. They drew attention to the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 agreed at the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) in June 1997 which, inter alia, calls for urgent fulfilment of commitments for the transfer of environmentally sound technology, including time-bound commitments, as appropriate, to developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government, while recognising that a number of positive results have been achieved, were deeply concerned that the overall trends with respect to sustainable development are worse today than they were in 1992, that new and additional financial resources to developing countries have not been provided, the transfer of environmentally sound technologies on favourable, concessional and preferential terms has not been realised, and that the developed countries have not assumed the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Hence, they emphasised that the implementation of Agenda 21 in a comprehensive manner remains vitally important and is more urgent now than ever.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the First Assembly of the GEF, which was held in New Delhi, India, from 1-3 April 1998. They noted the statement by the Assembly that for the GEF to meet its deepening potential and fulfil its multiple missions, it should be a facility at the cutting edge, innovative, flexible and responsive to the needs of recipient countries, as well as a catalyst for other institutions and efforts. They welcomed the completion of the second replenishment of the core fund of the GEF. They emphasised the need for decisions of the GEF to be taken in a democratic and transparent way and for coordination between the implementing agencies of the Facility to be strengthened. They committed themselves to continue reinforcing the developing countries' joint participation in the activities of the GEF to safeguard their common interests, both in the orientation of its policies as well as in the financial allocation of resources.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their full support to UNEP and called for its strengthening as a unique international organisation entrusted with the mandate to coordinate the activities dealing with environmental issues and make integrated analysis of the environmental problems in order to fulfil the goal of reaching international consensus concerning the new environmental challenges.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that economic and social development constitutes a priority and a fundamental right of countries. Sustainable development, therefore, must be considered within the wider context of sustained economic growth. States have the sovereign right to exploit their resources in accordance with their own environmental and developmental policies.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised that a mutually supportive balance between the international and the national environment is needed in the pursuit of sustainable development and that the gap in income between developed and developing countries points to the continued need for a dynamic and enabling international economic environment supportive of international cooperation, particularly in the fields of finance, technology transfer, debt and trade, if the momentum for the global progress towards sustained economic growth and sustainable development is to be maintained and increased.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Kyoto Protocol on legally binding commitments for the parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change to reduce their emission of Greenhouse Gases as contained in Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol. They called on the developed countries to undertake urgent and effective steps to implement these commitments through domestic action. Emission trading for implementation of such commitments can only commence after issues relating to the principles, modalities etc. of such trading, including the initial allocations of emission entitlement on an equitable basis to all countries has been agreed upon by the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. They categorically rejected all attempts by some developed countries to link their ratification of the Kyoto Protocol with the question of participation by developing countries in the reduction of GHG emissions. They also called for immediate measures to provide the developing countries with necessary financial resources and clean technology to enable them to meet their existing commitments under the Framework convention on Climate Change, including inter alia, inventorisation of national emissions and dissemination of knowledge of climate change.
- The Heads of State or Government urged developed countries to implement effective measures, to cope with their commitments in terms of the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases in their own territories and highlighted the need to avoid the so-called 'flexibility mechanisms' of the Kyoto Protocol enabling those countries to elude the fulfilment of their commitments. In this connection, the launching of the Clean Development Mechanism, established in terms of the Kyoto Protocol, could bring about risk and opportunities for the sustainable development of developing countries that must be adequately addressed.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the 10th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer and recognised progress made towards combating ozone depletion. They acknowledged that the depletion of the ozone layer poses a serious threat to the whole world. They urged Parties to the Protocol to comply with its requirements and to phase out the production and consumption of regulated ozone depleting substances (ODS's) in accordance with the phase out schedules agreed to by countries in terms of the Protocol. They urged Parties to the Protocol to comply with its requirements, including those relating to the phasing out of the consumption of regulated ozone depleting substances, and assistance to affected producers in developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government endorsed the decisions adopted in the framework of the Basel Convention to ban, by the end of 1997, all transborder movements of hazardous wastes originating from member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to non-OECD countries, and called for its strict and rigorous implementation. They declared that poor countries cannot afford to be the depositories of the hazardous wastes generated by the unsustainable production and consumption patterns of the member countries of the aforementioned Organisation. They welcomed the adoption of lists giving greater clarity concerning hazardous wastes subject to the ban, at the Fourth Conference of the Parties in Malaysia in February 1998. Many countries must still ratify the ban decision preventing movement of hazardous wastes from OECD-countries to non-OECD countries and, in line with the decision adopted at the Fourth Conference of the Parties, these countries are urged to proceed with the ratification as soon as possible.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the importance of biodiversity as a strategic wealth of the developing countries, on account of both its present and potential value, and agreed that its adequate management and conservation are essential for sustainable development, especially in the most important areas of national economies such as forest utilisation, agriculture, fishing, wildlife management, health, industry and tourism.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the importance of technology applied to biodiversity as a necessary means of securing the benefits from productivity increases in agriculture or from new and better products so that they constitute a source of economic and food security for future generations. They considered it essential to develop an appropriate framework, in order to guarantee supplier countries of genetic resources, a fair and equitable participation in research and development of projects, and in the benefits and results derived from this process.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled that the developing countries own the major proportion of the biological diversity on the planet. They further underlined that, in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, technology transfer and the efforts aimed at establishing an international system for the protection of intellectual property rights, including those related to goods and processes, should guarantee an equitable distribution of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. They also underscored that the rules and habits of local communities must be respected and incorporated into the intellectual property rights norms, and that market access should not confer a right to impose such norms.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the decision of the 1997 United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on Agenda 21 to prevent or eliminate over-fishing through the adoption of management measures and mechanisms to ensure the sustainable management and utilisation of fishery resources. They called upon the developing countries to participate actively in the Code of Conduct and support the elaboration by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the code of conduct for responsible fishing with the aim of preserving resources and managing and developing bio-aquatic resources, taking into account the preservation of ecosystems and biodiversity. They urged countries to ratify and implement the Convention relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and the Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. They also recalled the emphasis placed on an integrated approach to the management of oceans and all seas in Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and urged support for the improved implementation of the global program of action for the protection of the marine environment
- The Heads of State or Government called upon States, relevant intergovernmental bodies and all others involved in the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction to participate actively in the financial and technical support for the Decade activities, including those related to international cooperation to reduce the impact of the El Niño phenomenon and catastrophes such as earthquakes and floods, in order to ensure the implementation of the International Framework of Action for The Decade, in particular with a view to translating the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation and its Plan of Action into concrete disaster reduction programmes and activities. They reiterated that progress in economic development would contribute to States' ability to build the infrastructure necessary for natural disaster reduction and that concessional resources, together with technology transfer, were critical to strengthen their effort in this regard. They also observed that proactive disaster management programmes contributed positively to social and economic development, in that funds previously allocated to reactive activities became available for development. They noted that recent erratic changes in weather patterns, particularly floods, droughts, storms, had caused severe loss of life and damage to property. Some of these changes could be attributed to global warming, caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHG's). They called upon the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of GHG's with a view to protecting the global climate. They noted that recent erratic changes in weather patterns, particularly floods, droughts, storms had caused severe loss of life and damage property. Some of these changes could be attributed to global warming, caused by anthropogenic emissions of GHG's. They called upon the industrialised countries to reduce their emissions of GHG's with a view to protecting the global climate.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised that the water issue in the world is a problem of strategic and global nature, and that the fresh water reserves in the world are constantly decreasing whereas human requirements are increasing enormously. If the situation is not redressed, acute shortages of water resources and potable water may become the cause of social upheavals and international conflicts including between Member States. In this context they believed that it is necessary for competent international organisations to intensify efforts to mobilise and generalise the use of pertinent techniques, such as aseptation of used water and desalination of sea water at competitive economic costs. In the field of international cooperation, they stressed that the issue of water should be accorded a high priority and that adequate resources should be earmarked, in accordance with Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 and Principle 8 of the 1992 Rio Declaration.
- The Heads of State or Government took note of the efforts in recent meetings on water and development as well as the initiatives aiming at mobilising financial and technical resources in conjunction with the necessary investment efforts for development, management and sustainable use of water in the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed that efforts to manage the world's ocean resources are crucial in enabling countries to attain and sustain adequate levels of development. The conservation and sustainable use of the seas depends on conditions that promote economic growth, the environment and food security. Moreover the adequate management of ocean resources offers a vital field for the adoption of joint strategies which will further the objectives of South-South cooperation and, in particular, of collective self-reliance.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the convening of the First Conference of the Parties of the Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, held in Rome, 29 September to 10 October 1997, and in supporting the IFAD, which hosts the global mechanism to fully play the principal role in collaboration with UNDP and the World Bank, invited governments, regional integration organisations and other relevant organisations to fulfil their voluntary contributions in order to bring due assistance to the Convention Secretariat and its Subsidiary Organ. They attached great importance to the problem of desertification, which has affected many parts of the world, particularly Africa. Caused by many factors such as climate variations and human activities, desertification is not merely a matter of the land degradation, it is also about the people living in drylands. The most obvious effect of the degradation of drylands is the disgrace of natural resources and low agricultural productivity which lead to widespread poverty. In this regard, the international community, and the developed countries in particular, should provide new and additional financial resources in order to enabling developing countries to combat desertification and mitigate the effect of drought, including, the poverty as the principal consequences of desertification and drought in the majority of affected countries.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their support for the efforts of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in order to promote the balance between trade and environment as mutually supportive issues that should permit the achievement of sustainable development. On the other hand, they also called on the international community to ensure that environmental policies and measures with a potential trade impact were not used for protectionist purposes.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- The Heads of State or Government underlined that the progress of developing countries was dependent both on access to technology and their endogenous capacity to develop it. They attached special importance to environmentally sound and safe technologies and biotechnology. They expressed their grave concern at measures aimed at blocking or impeding, for political and other ends, particularly through coercive economic measures, the transfer of technology to developing countries. The controls imposed by highly industrialised countries on the export of dual-use technology and other types of sensitive technology should not be used to prevent the access of developing countries to technology for peaceful, developmental purposes.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised that the application of procedures to protect intellectual property rights should take into account the needs of developing countries so as not to adversely affect the financial, commercial, technological and development interests of their countries. They expressed the view that the protection of intellectual property must be complemented by actions directed at stimulating the creation of new indigenous technologies on favourable conditions.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the need to further support the developing countries' efforts on science and technology through, inter-alia, the multilateral financial institutions, cooperation in the development of appropriate technologies, the transfer of technology between small and medium size enterprises (SME's) in developed and developing countries, foreign direct investment flows and strengthening information systems on environmentally sound technologies.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the work being undertaken by the Commission on Science and Technology for Development on its work programme for Member States, especially for developing countries, and reaffirmed its unique role as a functional commission of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), acting as the sole intergovernmental forum for the consideration of policy matters related to science and technology. They also acknowledged its impact on development and its contribution to the formulation of recommendations and guidelines on science and technology within the United Nations system, and for advancing policy and operational recommendations as to how to implement the commitments of major United Nations conferences on the issue of access to technology and transfer of technology to developing countries. They called for the strengthening of the Commission to better discharge its role for the examination of science and technology policies and for the formulation of recommendations and guidelines on science and technology matters within the United Nations system, in relation to all development issues.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their profound concern over the continued inadequacy of resources for fostering science and technology for development, and the lack of political will on the part of the developed countries in fulfilling their commitments in this respect. They called on the developed countries to facilitate access of developing countries to technology that was held or owned by governments and public institutions or results from publicly-funded research and development activities.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the need for developing countries to have access to and full benefit from opportunities presented by the growth in information technology, particularly through the cyberspace. In this regard, they called on the developed countries to strengthen the developing countries' endogenous capacity and facilitate their access to such technology on favourable terms as well as preferential and concessional terms.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the potential negative impact that the Year 2000 (or Millennium) Bug problem could have on developing country societies. They stressed the need for a joint initiative that included the sharing of information and best practices, communicating examples of projects underway and experience gained from such projects at multilateral fora, as well as making different pockets of expertise available to all countries, thus minimising the cost of dealing with the problem. They also urged every country to establish a national task team if it had not done so, in order to monitor the situation in each member country. In this regard they urged the relevant organs and organisations of the UN, in particular UNCTAD and the ITU, to assist developing countries to become year 2000 compliant, in accordance with UNGA Resolution 52/233 and the ECOSOC guidelines contained in document 1998/85.
- The Heads of State or Government also stressed the need to promote, facilitate, and finance as appropriate access to and transfer of technology, including EST, on favourable and concessional terms. They called for the facilitation of the maintenance and promotion of traditional and indigenous technologies that may have been neglected or displaced, in particular, in developing countries. They underlined that in the area of bio-genetic resources, it was imperative that rules were codified on the prevention of bio-piracy. They also underlined that such rules needed to be based on the inherent right of communities in developing countries to their indigenous bio-genetic resources and that bio-piracy was an ethical issue affecting the vital socio-economic development of developing countries. They also stressed the need to ensure that developing countries' industries were enabled to have their due share of global bio-trade.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed with satisfaction the continued implementation of the expanded programme of cooperation by the Centre for Science and Technology of NAM countries and called upon all Non-Aligned and other developing countries to subscribe to the Statute of the Centre and to strengthen the Centre financially.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
- The Heads of State or Government pointed out that Non-Aligned Countries should intensify the development of communication technology as a means of redressing the continued imbalances and inequalities between developed and developing countries in the field of information and communication. In this context, they reaffirmed that member countries should enhance the function of the Non-Aligned News Agency Pool (NANAP) and the Broadcasting Organisation of Non-Aligned Countries (BONAC) and accelerating the process of setting up the New International Information Centres decided by COMINAC V.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their appreciation for the efforts of the Cyprus Chairmanship of BONAC in promoting the goals of this important organisation of the Non-Aligned countries and accepted the offer of Colombia to assume the Chairmanship as from June 1998.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled the outcome of the Fifth Conference of Ministers of Information of the Non-Aligned Countries (COMINAC V) held in Abuja in September 1996, which, inter alia, agreed on the need for intensive research efforts by Non-Aligned and other developing countries in the development of communication technology and inter and intra regional cooperation through NAM mechanisms geared to this end, as a means of redressing the continued imbalances and inequalities between developed and developing countries in the field of information and communication.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern over the increasing use of defamation and distortion of information by some mass media of developed countries, such as Radio Free Asia and Radio Marti, to destabilise the governments of Non-Aligned and other developing countries and called for an immediate end to such acts. They expressed their concern over the undisguised attempts of some countries to eliminate the concept of a new equitable world information and communication order and stressed that the establishment of a new world information and communication order aimed at ensuring impartiality and balance in the information glow, improving the information and communication infrastructure and capacity of the developing countries through the transfer of advanced information technology and expanding their access to information is more imperative than ever before, particularly for the maintenance of international peace and security.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the importance of revitalising the work of the UN system in the field of Information and Informatics, with a view to improving access to the full benefits of the global developments in these areas, particularly for Non-Aligned and other developing countries. In this connection, they stressed the need for closer attention by the members of the Movement, as well as by the Group of 77 and China, to the work of the Committee on Information and the Working Group on Informatics.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with concern the observation made by the Task Force on the reorientation on the UN Public Information activities regarding substantial problems that some integrated UN Information Centres have confronted in performing their information and communications functions and requested the United Nations Secretary-General to undertake urgently a review of such Centres located in Non-Aligned and other developing countries to rectify the situation. They also emphasised that no changes in resources allocation to the Department of Communication and Public Information of the UN should be done that may impair the ability of the Department to perform its mandate work, particularly the ones in the areas of special interest to Non-Aligned and other developing countries. They also stressed the importance of ensuring objectivity and impartiality in the UN DPI's publications and in this regard, welcomed the adoption at the 20th session of the Committee on Information of a resolution urging the Secretary-General to ensure that those publications maintain editorial independence, impartiality, accuracy and full consistency with the Assembly's resolutions and decisions.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to South-South cooperation in the field of information and communication based on the principle of collective self-reliance. They recognised the profound impact that the major developments taking place in the information technology has on the economies of developing countries which will lead to further marginalisation in the globalised world economy. In this regard they noted with satisfaction the outcome of Africa TELECOM '98 and recognised the importance that such events, in particular the four yearly regional TELECOM exhibitions and forums could play in fostering South-South cooperation. They also urged all countries to support the aims and objectives enshrined in The African Connection report of Africa TELECOM '98, putting emphasis on service delivery and investment and in this manner ensuring that a large number of Non-Aligned members on the African continent are fully integrated into the global information society.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that due to new and evolving economic, investment and institutional arrangements among major world economies, South-South cooperation should become a more dynamic part of international development cooperation and a means of ensuring the equitable participation of developing countries in the emerging global economic order. They further stressed that increasing globalisation, liberalisation and interdependence are all making this cooperation more imperative than before. Varying development experiences and know-how in developing countries, as well as similar needs and problems to be solved, offer a unique window of opportunities for greater bilateral, subregional, regional and interregional cooperation among developing countries. Furthermore, South-South Cooperation would also strengthen the harmonisation of developing countries positions in the regional and global system and will afford them a measure of collective strength.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the progress accomplished by Regional Trade Agreements concluded amongst grouping of Non-Aligned and other developing countries where liberalisation has been substantial, open and supportive of wider multilateral trade, resulting in trade creation both for RTA's members and for the third countries.
- The Heads of State or Government invited UNCTAD and the Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) of the UNDP, as well as other relevant organisations, taking into account their agreed mandates, work programmes and priorities, to jointly undertake further work on formulating concrete recommendations on the follow-up and implementation of the San José Declaration and Plan of Action adopted by the South-South Conference on Trade, Finance and Investment.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction that in the past few years there has been resurgence in interest in the increased relevance and importance of South-South cooperation, as a strategy in support of the development efforts of the developing countries as a means of ensuring their equitable participation in the emerging global economic order. They emphasised the increasing importance and complementarily of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries as a means of supporting the development efforts of these countries, particularly the least developed and African countries. They also recognised the importance of resources provided by developed countries to strengthen South-South Cooperation.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that South-South cooperation should be promoted through the sharing of development experiences, transfer of technology and exploiting the latent synergies and complementarities between Non-Aligned countries and increasing FDI flows and economic cooperation among them. They expressed their conviction that South-South cooperation constituted an integral and essential part of the efforts of the developing countries to promote economic growth, technological capacities and accelerated development.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the great efforts made by various developing countries to promote cooperation among themselves, taking advantage of the support and assistance of different international organisations. In this connection, they welcomed the effective cooperation between certain member countries with FAO financial assistance through food security programmes in recent years whereby member countries have been able to share among themselves their expertise and experiences in agricultural development and help each other raise their agricultural production capacity. They believed that such a South-South-Donor cooperation model should be further encouraged and multiplied.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the recent meetings convened by regional, sub-regional and other groupings of developing countries such as the Group of 77 meetings and the Group of 15 Summit, which took place in Cairo from 12-15 May 1998. In this respect, they emphasised the necessity of creating an international economic environment conducive to the fulfilment of the aims and aspirations of the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government also took note of the recently concluded Summit of the Economic Cooperation Organisation held in Almaty from 9-11 May 1998.
- The Heads of State or Government strongly favoured the holding of a South-South Summit, as called for in the outcome of the South-South Conference on Trade, Investment and Finance held in San José, Costa Rica, from 13-15 January 1997. They took note of the results of the "G-77 High Level Advisory Meeting on South Summit" held in Jakarta, Indonesia, 10-11 August 1998 which among others identified possible Agenda for the Summit. They called on Member States to come forward to offer venues for holding of this Summit.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the need to intensify the process of strengthening the various inter-regional dialogues and the exchange of experiences among subregional and regional economic groupings for the purposes of expanding South-South cooperation through integrating the modalities of economic and technical cooperation among developing countries. In this context, they noted the proposal to convene the "G-77 High Level Meeting on Subregional and Regional Economic Cooperation" to be held in Bali, Indonesia, 2-4 December 1998.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the recent inauguration of the NAM Centre for South-South Technical Cooperation in Jakarta, Indonesia by the governments of Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam. They acknowledged that the focus of its activities is on the enhancement of people centred development and capitalisation of local resources through constructive interaction amongst development actors and partnership in development. Thus, given its vast capacity to carry out various technical programmes, they called on developing and developed countries, as well as international organisations to extend support to the centre by contributing to its future programmes and activities. Furthermore they requested the Centre to coordinate and initiate a cooperative network with other NAM members for the implementation of their programmes of prominence.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that South-South cooperation is an essential mechanism for promoting the sustainable economic self-support and in bolstering a new South-South relations by broadening and intensifying economic cooperation among the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government urged a re-examination of current modalities and mechanisms for South-South cooperation by the secretariats of regional economic groupings and other relevant institutions with a view to strengthen and readapt these modalities. In the same spirit, they urged to strengthen coordination between the Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77 in order to effectively promote the interests and positions of developing countries in different multilateral economic negotiations and fora.
- The Heads of State or Government supported the meeting held in Santiago de Chile, November 1997, organised by the Special Unit for Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC) of the UNDP. They recognised the importance of the pivotal countries as catalytic agents for promoting the effective participation of developing countries in the emerging global economic system. They stressed the need to promote an exchange of experiences among developing countries for South-South cooperation. Pivotal countries, and any other countries, could share their capacities and experience with other developing countries in such areas as poverty eradication, agriculture, development, forestry, trade promotion, education, health, science and technology.
- The Heads of State or Government were of the view that the challenges facing the Movement in the area of international economic cooperation would become more complex in the era of globalisation and interdependence. They considered that the challenges should be addressed appropriately to seize the opportunities that globalisation could offer. They believed in the need to review the progress achieved by the Movement as well as to develop measures and approaches to meet the challenges of the 21st century. To that end, they decided to convene the Standing Ministerial Committee for Economic Cooperation in 1999, with a view to developing suggestions and recommendations, especially on matters of particular interest to the developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the entry into force of the African Economic Community (AEC) at the Inaugural Summit in Harare, Zimbabwe, in July 1997 as an important milestone in the achievement of economic emancipation of Africa. They considered the Community and its antecedent sub-regional economic organisations, namely the Economic Community of West African states (ECOWAS), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the Monetary Union of West Africa (UMOA), the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Arab Magreb Union (AMU), the Economic and Monetary Community for Central African States (ECCAS) and the Inter-Government Authority on Development (IGAD), as important mechanisms through which strategies and plans already identified by countries in the region could be effectively implemented to the benefit of African peoples. They therefore called on all Africa's partners in development to become more fully engaged with the countries concerned in the process of renewal and revival on which they have embarked. They reiterated that such engagement should include concrete and more determined efforts aimed at alleviating the heavy debt burden of the continent, increasing market access for African products and attracting soft loans for their development. On their part, they urged the countries in the region not to relent in their pursuit of economic growth, as well as the current strategy of deepening cooperation with other developing countries in pursuit of the same goal.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed satisfaction at the progress made in the areas of bilateral, subregional, regional and interregional cooperation and integration in all modes of transport among developing countries. They were especially gratified by the cooperation in improving air navigation in developing countries and the movement to coordinate the position of developing countries in multilateral fora of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Considering this, they stressed the need to promote and enhance cooperation among developing countries for finding solutions to common problems in transport. They emphasised the need to effectively pursue the aims and objectives of bilateral, subregional, regional and interregional cooperation and integration arrangements of providing save, efficient and reliable transport services, providing economically viable integrated transport networks, as well as preserving and improving viable and strategic transport services and infrastructure. Thus, they expressed strong willingness to developing better coordination of their efforts to advance the position and interests of developing countries within multilateral fora.
CRITICAL ECONOMIC SITUATION IN AFRICA
- The Heads of State or Government embraced the idea that the international community should lend concrete support to Africa's own efforts to realise the objective of the African Renaissance, which aims to place the continent at the forefront of human development and progress. They noted that whilst the international community has a crucial role to play in assisting Africa to achieve African development priorities and goals, the primary responsibility for the development of Africa lies with the Africans themselves. In this regard they welcome the growing trend in Africa towards greater regional sub-regional cooperation and integration.
- The Heads of State or Government welcome the improvement of economic performance in Africa in recent years. However, they expressed concern at the continuing high levels of poverty in Africa, which require the urgent attention of the international community.
- The Heads of State or Government called on the international community to provide additional resources for the development of the social sector in Africa, in particular to alleviate the adverse consequences on the social sector of implementation of structural reform of their economies. In addition, they reiterated that the Bretton Woods institutions, especially the IMF, should combine their efforts with the United Nations system by incorporating poverty alleviation and social development policies in their economic stabilisation programmes.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the outcome of the Mid-Term Review of the United Nations New Agenda for the Development of Africa (UNNADAF) and called upon the international community to implement the renewed commitments to ensure that the targets of UNNADAF will be reached within the time frame of the program. They noted with concern the apparent demise of the United Nations System-wide Special Initiative on Africa scarcely two years after its launch. They confirmed the validity of the priorities then identified (education, health, water security and capacity building for governance), and urged the rededication of resources to bring this initiative to fruition.
- The Heads of State or Government re-emphasised their concern at the problems derived from human-made and natural disasters, including drought, over-flooding and desertification, which further aggravate the plight of African societies. The devastating effects of the recent El Niño phenomenon clearly demonstrates the vulnerability of countries, particularly developing countries, to natural disasters such as drought and flood. Such disasters often affect more than one country. They called upon states to intensify co-operation among themselves in the adoption of proactive programmes for disaster prevention, preparedness, mitigation and disaster relief.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that despite debt rescheduling and forgiveness, African countries are still confronted with an increasing debt burden. Although the application of the Naples Terms and Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) represent an encouraging step towards a solution to the problem of bilateral debt within the Paris Club, the debt of low-income African countries still remain a serious impediment to their development prospects. The situation is exacerbated by the negative flow of resources from Africa to the multilateral institutions. The continuing progressive growth in the share of multilateral debt in their total debt stock requires the establishment of adequate modalities to implement multilateral debt reduction for the benefit of indebted African countries. They further urged the multilateral monetary and financial institutions as well as bilateral creditors to establish mechanisms that would not only seek lasting and effective solutions to the problem of multilateral debt of African countries, but would also provide additional concessional resources to the concerned countries.
- The Heads of State and Government expressed their deep concern that the socio-economic situation in Africa had remained precarious despite many efforts made by African countries, individually and collectively, to lay a solid foundation for Africa's development. In all these endeavours, African countries were guided by the principle of collective self-reliance in order to achieve self-sustaining development of their countries. In this regard they reaffirmed the importance of greater support and the provision of adequate resources by the international community to augment Africa's own efforts.
- In the context of globalisation and liberalisation, the Heads of State and Governments noted with concern the declining Official Development Assistance to Africa and that Foreign Direct Investment flows to Africa account for a mere 2% of the total FDI inflows to the developing countries. They deplored this continued marginalisation of Africa and called for the reversal of this downward trend. In the same vein, they called on the African countries to continue to take proactive steps to improve the climate for investments. They also called upon major industrialised countries to take complimentary steps so that the actions undertaken by the African countries could have maximum impact and prevent their marginalisation in the global economy. They reiterated that FDI can only complement concessional finance and not replace it.
- The Heads of State and Government while acknowledging that Africa was still mainly an agricultural and pastoral continent were concerned that food and agricultural output had declined substantially since the 1960's. Consequently, most African countries had become nett food importers. The civil strife, drought, desertification and other environmental factors, inter-alia, had contributed to the decline in food production. In this connection, they called on the international community to implement the Plan of Action of the World Food Summit. They furthermore called on African countries to adopt appropriate agrarian reform measures including investment in infrastructure and the extension of rural financial intermediation with a view to ensuring food security. They also welcomed the convening of the First Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and Desertification particularly those in Africa held in Rome from 29 September - 10 October 1997.
- The Heads of State and Government concurred that development of human resources was fundamental to sustainable and equitable development. The primacy of human resources development had therefore to be maintained in all Members States' economic and social policies. In this connection, education and training were key to economic and social development and had to be adapted to the needs of societies, with an emphasis on technical, scientific and technological education, thereby ensuring that education and training were commensurate with the exigencies of the labour market. Priority focus had be given to increasing countries' capacity to implement their human resource development plans. Human resource development had to take gender balancing into account.
- The Heads of State and Government emphasised that industrialisation is of great importance in helping African countries to achieve the renaissance of their continent. They were of the view that industrialisation is central to structural change and transformation of their economies, the increase in income and employment as well as the diversification of their economies. They also observed that industrialisation in Africa is still at a rudimentary stage, with low technological input and high operating costs. In this regard, they called upon African governments to give priority attention to the formulation of a programme for industrial restructuring, recognising the changing world economy and the globalisation of production processes.
LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
- The Heads of State or Government called upon the developed countries to fulfil the commitment of allocating at least 0,15% of the GNP as official development assistance to the least developed countries and to endeavour to reach the target of 0,20% by the year 2000. They called upon the international community to assist LDC's in developing their respective capacities, taking the individual needs of each country into account, to maximise development assistance. They further urged the developed countries, multilateral financial institutions and other creditors for intensifying their efforts for an effective, durable, and comprehensive solution of the debt crisis of LDC's. In this regard, they appealed to the developed countries to write off the debt of the LDC's.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the holding of the WTO/UNCTAD High Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for Least Developed Countries on Trade and Development held in Geneva from 27 - 28 October 1997. They noted the adoption of the Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance, including for Human and Institutional Capacity-Building, to support LDC's in their trade and trade related activities, and welcomed the envisaged closer cooperation between the WTO and other multilateral agencies assisting least developed countries, in particular UNCTAD and ITC, as well as the IMF, World Bank and UNDP. They urged these international organisations to ensure effective cooperation amongst themselves and speedy implementation of the actions requested by LDC's. They urged the developed countries to ensure that the necessary funds were made available to these organisations to secure implementation of these proposed measures.
- The Heads of State or Government called for the effective, full and prompt implementation of the Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s, and called upon all concerned to take urgent measures to implement the recommendations of the Mid-Term Review Meeting. At the same time, they welcomed the holding of the WTO High Level Meeting on Integrated Initiatives for Least Developed Countries on Trade and Development held in Geneva from 27-28 October 1997, as a first step towards halting further economic marginalisation of LDC's.
- The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community to take concrete steps so that the exports of the LDC's are given wider and more preferential access to the markets of the developed countries, and for support to be provided in the area of trade services, as well as in facilitating direct foreign investment flows. They expressed further support to the compensation of the least developed countries for the possible negative effect resulting from the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and for building capacities for maximising opportunities arising from these agreements and in this regard, they called upon the international community for operationalising the complementary provisions of the Marrakesh Agreement in favour of the LDC's.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that, despite sharp declines in the levels of ODA and a price slump in many commodities, several African and Asian LDC's achieved encouraging levels of economic growth since 1995. This has largely been as a result of consistent implementation of economic policy reforms and thus, they called on the international community to recognise these important achievements and to support development efforts of all LDC's.
LAND-LOCKED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
- The Heads of State or Government, noting the additional costs incurred by land locked developing countries in developing their import and export markets, called on the international community to give special attention and support to the special development problems and needs of these countries, particularly through technical cooperation with and financial assistance by developed countries, and multilateral financial institutions to enable these countries to effectively participate in a rapidly globalising world economy.
- The Heads of State or Government noted that transit developing countries faced serious economic problems and that their efforts at developing a viable transit infrastructure also needed financial and technical support from the international community. They noted that in some cases regional integration and cooperation efforts have also provided additional solutions to the specific problems confronting land-locked countries.
SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their full support for the system wide implementation of the Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island States adopted by the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States which was held in Bridgetown, Barbados from 25 April to 6 May 1994. They reaffirmed in particular the need for the provision of adequate, predictable, new and additional financial resources, transfer of environmentally sound technologies on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, and the promotion of non-discriminatory trading arrangements. They also noted the need for appropriate exchanges among small island developing states as well as between them and other States with similar development experiences to be encouraged.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the importance of the Barbados Plan of Action in identifying and addressing the problems and vulnerability of the Small Island Developing States and reiterated the call for the support of the international community in the implementation of the Programme of Action including the on-going initiatives to establish a Vulnerability Index For SIDS. In this regard they welcomed the comprehensive review of the SIDS Programme of Action scheduled for 1999 and the decision of the 19th Special Session of the General Assembly to hold a two-day Special Session in 1999.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the decision taken by the World Bank to set up a Task Force to study the problems of small States. In this regard, they called upon the Bretton Woods Institutions to review the criteria of per capita income and creditworthiness presently used as the measure for the graduation of members regarding access to the various types of loans. In the context of such a review, they recommended that the inherent structural and institutional constraints of Small Island States as well as the concept of vulnerability should also be used.
CHAPTER IV: SOCIAL ISSUES
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their commitment to accelerate implementation of the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action which recommended actions to create, in a framework of sustained economic growth and sustainable development, a national and international environment favourable to social development, to eradicate poverty, to enhance productive employment with the goal of achieving full employment, to reduce unemployment and to foster social integration. They re-emphasised their commitment to adhere to the principles and to fulfil the ten commitments contained in the Declaration adopted by the 1995 World Summit for Social Development. They welcomed the establishment of the Trust Fund for the follow-up to the World Summit and urged UN member states and Non-Aligned countries to contribute resources to the fund.
- The Heads of State or Government noted progress in the follow-up to the World Summit for Social Development. To this end they encouraged Member States to continue with the current national, regional and international initiatives including the formulation and implementation of national social development plans. They further noted that progress recorded in the analysis of poverty and the identification of its remedies had been significant. Furthermore, they expressed their satisfaction at the convening of a special review session of the UNGA on the outcome of the World Summit for Social Development to be held in the year 2000.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed the imperative need to promote social development in conjunction with sustained economic growth and sustainable use of natural resources for the realisation of the aspirations and welfare of current and future generations. It was therefore a primary responsibility of Government and all sectors of civil society that the goals of poverty eradication, food, health, education, employment, housing and social integration, to which they committed themselves in Copenhagen, were put into effect. They further reaffirmed that such action should be complemented by effective international cooperation.
- The Heads of State or Government again stressed that the eradication of poverty was an ethical, social, political and economic imperative. It could only be achieved through a multi-dimensional and integrated approach that combined programmes targeted at the poor with policies and strategies that met the basic needs of all, ensured access by all to productive resources, opportunities and public services, enhanced social protection and reduced vulnerability. Sustainable development and sustained economic growth was crucial for raising living standards and for eliminating poverty.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the tendency to increase public expenditure for social development within member countries and called on the international community, and in particular the developed countries and international organisations, to assist in providing both the required financial and technical resources to the developing countries to support their efforts. They stressed that such investment would underline solidarity and afford increased equity, greater productivity and increased social welfare.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the contribution of social development to economic progress, greater conditions of equity, economic productivity, social solidarity, political participation and tolerance and international cooperation. These should be translated into advances in competitiveness and improved social development indicators. Accordingly, they committed themselves to accord greater priority to the more vulnerable social strata and to the least advanced regions in their countries.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that the eradication of poverty through sustained and accelerated economic growth continued to remain the overriding priority for developing countries. In this context, they stressed the need for a supportive international economic and financial environment to address long-term problems of poverty and underdevelopment and reaffirmed the need to facilitate their efforts for the eradication of poverty and the improvement of the well-being of their people. They further encouraged exchange of experiences among NAM member countries on poverty eradication programmes with a view to strengthening cooperation among them.
- They stressed the need that designed poverty eradication policies and programmes should be effectively materialised through greater and more objective cooperation within and amongst countries on the one hand, and between government and relevant international organisations.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that the eradication of poverty was essential to ensure long term peace and security as well as to achieve sustainable social and economic development. They also reaffirmed that, within the context of overall action for the eradication of poverty, special attention should be given to the multi-dimensional nature of poverty, to the national and international framework conditions and policies that are conducive to its eradication, to the promotion of an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective and to the utilisation of gender analysis as a tool for the integration of a gender dimension into the planning and implementation of policies, strategies and programmes on poverty eradication.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their concern about the large and increasing number of people who suffered from hunger and malnutrition. They emphasised the urgency of taking action to meet the commitments for achieving food security for present and future generations, as mentioned in the Declaration and the Action Plan of the World Food Summit, held in Rome in November 1996.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised that, in developing countries, rural development remained central to poverty eradication efforts, and this often included agrarian reform, investment in infrastructure, extension of rural financial intermediation, ensuring food security, better education and greater utilisation of appropriate technology, ensuring fair prices to provide incentives for agricultural investment, and increasing productivity, including productivity in the informal sector.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the outcome of the Microcredit Summit, held in Washington D.C., from 2 - 4 February 1997, which through its Declaration and Plan of Action launched a global campaign to reach 100 million of the world's poorest families, especially women of those families, with credit for self-employment and other financial and business services, by the year 2005. They recognised that microcredit programmes, by providing access to small capital to people living in poverty in many countries of the world, had led to their increasing participation in the mainstream economic and political process of the society. They further recognised that, in addition to its role in the eradication of poverty, microcredit programmes had also been a contributing factor to the social and human development process in the empowerment of women and attaining better social justice. They encouraged the development of new and the strengthening and expansion of existing microlending institutions, so that the outreach of credit was extended to an increasing number of people living in poverty and that the progress to reach the goal of the Microcredit was accelerated.
- The Heads of State or Government, noting the interdependence of nations and the varying levels of human development worldwide, stressed the need for a New Global Human Order aimed at reversing the growing disparities between rich and poor, both among and within countries, through the alleviation of poverty, the expansion of productive employment and the promotion of social integration.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Final Declaration of the Meeting of NAM Health Minister, held in Havana, Cuba, in June 1998, and reaffirmed the importance of health as an indispensable resource for sustainable development.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and acute diarrhoeal diseases, threatened the economic and development goals of all developing countries, particularly since these countries lacked guaranteed access to safe and affordable essential medicines. They urged the international community to assist developing countries in securing such access, by ensuring that public health considerations took precedence over commercial interests in fora that considered such matters. They further emphasised that a coordinated response by governments and other sectors of society would be necessary to successfully combat these epidemics.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the ongoing contribution of institutions in developing countries to health research, such as the work of the Institute of Immunology of Colombia, in the development of synthetic vaccines against tropical diseases and urged the strengthening of such South-South Cooperation.
- The Heads of State or Government called on those countries with established technical and marketing capacities in the field of production and trade in medicines, to refrain from multilateral or unilateral measures not consistent with international law and the fundamental principles of the Non-Aligned Movement, that created obstacles to trade in pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products or access of people to essential medicines.
EDUCATION AND CULTURE
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed that education was a determining factor for the political, social, cultural and economic development of their peoples. They recognised that science and technology were important to assure growing levels of knowledge and had to be put at the service of education.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the decisions adopted at the Meeting of the Ministers of Culture of NAM held in Medellin, Colombia, from 3-5 September 1997. They further welcomed the steps made by the Government of Egypt for the establishment in Cairo of the Centre for Cultural Cooperation among the Members of the Non-aligned Movement, pursuant to the final document of the aforementioned Meeting.
- The Heads of State or Government called for the full implementation of relevant UNESCO resolutions and decisions relating to the restitution of cultural property of peoples formerly under colonial rule and urged that payment of applicable compensation be made in conformity with General Assembly Resolution 52/24 and other relevant General Assembly resolutions on the return of cultural property to their countries of origin. They also affirmed the right of Non-Aligned countries to preserve their cultures and protect their national heritage which is the basis of the cultural identity of these countries.
- The Heads of States or Government recalled the results of the First Meeting of Ministers of Culture of the NAM who expressed that, on the eve of the 21st century, the Movement has a major responsibility to protect and promote respect for cultural diversity of its people, through the process of cultural development and cultural cooperation in the quest for peace and integration.
- The Heads of State or Government called on all member states to participate actively in the 6th Film Festival of Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries, held in Pyongyang, DPR of Korea to be held in September 1998, following the decision of the Conference of the Ministers of Culture of Non-Aligned Countries to promote cooperation among Member States in the field of culture.
- The Heads of State or Government emphasised the importance of technical cooperation for developing countries, based on their needs and requirements in order to implement ILO core conventions.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the call made at the World Summit for Social Development for appropriate policies and programmes to eradicate family poverty, which is the main cause of child labour and to eliminate child labour. They further expressed support for ILO initiatives dealing with child labour.
- The Heads of State or Government renewed their commitment to the goal of full employment. They agreed to the objective of implementing appropriate economic and social policies that aim at attaining secure and sustainable livelihoods through freely chosen productive employment and work. They reiterated that the generation of productive employment constitutes a vital factor of strategies to combine the objectives of social and economic development. The strategy of economic growth should lead to the creation of more and better employment opportunities, while the social strategy should further emphasise the development of human resources in order to take full advantage of opportunities.
- The Head of State or Government welcomed the launching of the UNDP financed programme "Jobs for Africa" by the ILO, as a follow-up to the Social Summit which has the objective to identify a set of mutually enforcing policies for job creation and poverty reduction.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed the successful outcome of the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, Egypt in 1994, which was designed to integrate population issues in the development context. They called for increased efforts for the speedy implementation of the Cairo Programme of Action, as adopted, and underscored the importance of the role of both the international community and the United Nations system in mobilising the necessary resources for this purpose. They further recognised the importance of the Special Session of the General Assembly to be held in 1999 in order to review the implementation of the Cairo Programme of Action and urged the international community to intensify its efforts to achieve the goals of the Cairo Programme of Action. They noted with grave concern that while the developing countries had largely met their commitments for domestic resource mobilisation, the external resources committed at Cairo had not been forthcoming.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
- The Heads of State or Government called on member countries of the Movement and the international community to work towards the effective respect for the human dignity and well-being of migrants, international norms and full compliance with relevant international instruments. They also expressed their concern over the emergence of stringent immigration policies in various developed countries which severely restrict the free movement of people and breed xenophobia. They also expressed deep concern over new immigration laws and regulations recently adopted by some developed countries which could lead to massive deportations of immigrants from Non-Aligned Countries and other developing countries in violation of their fundamental human rights. They called upon those developed countries to take fully into account the social and economic effects those deportations would have on the affected developing countries, particularly those facing high debt burdens and high unemployment situations. They emphasised that due attention be accorded to migrants and their families in the developed countries as per relevant international instruments. They also called upon the developed countries to ensure the protection of immigrants and their families from all kinds of racism, discrimination and violence.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the hosting in Turkey of the International Conference on Human Settlements, HABITAT II, organised in June 1996 by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/HABITAT). They noted that at the conclusion of the conference, all representative countries committed themselves to the Habitat Agenda which is effectively the guiding international policy for human settlements, and that Habitat Agenda offers a positive vision of sustainable human settlements development, where all should have adequate shelter, healthy and safe environment, basic services and productive and freely chosen employment. At the same time they stressed the importance of the goals of the Habitat Agenda, namely to create equitable human settlements which provide equal opportunities for all; to eradicate poverty; to promote sustainable urban development; to improve the quality of life and human health for all; to strengthen the family unit; to respect and protect the rights of all, and to contribute to the common good. They also reiterated their support to the principles of the Habitat Agenda, namely to encourage public participation in decision making processes; to promote partnerships at all levels; to support the disadvantaged and the vulnerable groups; to safeguard the interests of present and future generations.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed satisfaction that the Plan of Action provided an enhanced mandate for international cooperation and assistance to Non-aligned and other developing countries to deal with the problems of human settlements and to realise shelter for all, taking into account that shelter is a basic human right. In this regard they emphasised the urgent need to revitalise the UNHCS/HABITAT as focal point for implementation of the Habitat Agenda and for the coordination of technical and institutional support to developing countries in the area of human settlements development and adequate shelter for all. They highlighted the importance of the right to adequate shelter, and the assignment of the responsibility for promoting and ensuring this right to national governments. They also reaffirmed their commitment to the promotion of sustainable urban development through, effective participatory processes. They furthermore stressed the importance of appropriate disaster prevention and response mechanisms, the rehabilitation of areas affected by natural and human made disasters. They agreed that the special session of the General Assembly in 2001 should provide an important opportunity to review the progress made in implementation of the Habitat Agenda and to define corrective measures where necessary.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled the significance of the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reaffirmed that all human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated, that the international community must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing and with the same emphasis, and that the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be respected. It is the duty of States, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms of all peoples, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments. Furthermore, they agreed that the transformation and the continuing adaptation of human rights machinery to current and future needs in the promotion and protection of human rights would be one of the most appropriate ways to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the five year review of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action.
- The Heads of State or Government took note of the ongoing discussions on the five year review of the Vienna Declaration and Programme for Action and called on the international community to support and cooperate with the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to materialise the objectives in those instruments. In this context, they expressed the need for enhanced interaction between the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Coordinating Bureau of Non-Aligned Countries, with a view to strengthening their working relationship. They further stressed the need to urgently adopt concrete measures to modify the unequal post distribution in the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights through the appointment of personnel from development countries.
- While stressing the indivisible nature of all human rights its, the Heads of State or Government made special emphasis on the importance of the right to development for all peoples, as an universal and inalienable right and as integral part of the fundamental human rights. They welcomed the adoption of Resolution 52/136 on the right to development by the UN General Assembly and Resolution 1998/72 of the Commission on Human Rights and affirmed that democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to development, are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. The adoption, for any cause or consideration, of coercive and unilateral measures, rules and policies against developing countries constitute a flagrant violation of the basic rights of their populations. They also affirmed that poverty and social and economic exclusion constitute a violation of human dignity and human rights. It is essential for States to promote efforts to combat extreme poverty and to foster participation by the poorest members of the society in the decision making process.
- The Heads of State and Government welcomed the greater acceptance of the importance of the implementation of the right to development by the international community. In this regard they reaffirmed their trust in the creation of an open-ended inter-governmental working group on the right to development, as an appropriate modality for the implementation of the right to development. They further proposed that consideration be given to the preparation of a Convention on the Right to Development as one of the important steps towards effective implementation of the right to development.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed that the human rights issues must be addressed within the global context through a constructive, dialogue based approach, with objectivity, respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, impartiality, non-selectivity and transparency as the guiding principles, taking into account the political, historical, social, religious and cultural characteristics of each country. Exploitation of human rights for political purposes, including selective targeting of individual countries for extraneous considerations which is contrary to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, should be excluded. They emphasised, that coordination of human rights activities must be carried out by United Nations organs, bodies and specialised agencies, whose activities deal with human rights, so as to cooperate in order to strengthen, rationalise and streamline those activities, taking into account the need to avoid unnecessary duplication.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their opposition to decisions by certain powers based on the unacceptable principle of the extra-territorial implementation of national legislation including the use of sanctions, and that are being extended to issues labelled by these powers as "human rights issues" to be used as a pretext to interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign States.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that every state should provide an effective framework for the protection and promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms in accordance with the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the international covenants on human rights and other relevant international instruments on human rights, as well as a framework of remedies to redress human rights grievances or violations. In this context they reaffirmed the important and constructive role to be played by independent national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights and stressed that every effort should be made for the impartiality and objectivity of the national institutions. They recognised that it is the right of each national institution to choose its framework, in accordance with national legislation.
- The Heads of State or Government urged States to ensure that their constitutional and internal legal systems, taking into account the respective country conditions, provide effective guarantees for fundamental human rights such as freedom of speech, association, thought, conscience, religion and belief to all without discrimination. They condemned unequivocally all violent acts and activities that infringe upon human rights and fundamental freedoms, democracy, tolerance and respect for diversity.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the adoption of the General Assembly Resolution 52/134 entitled "Enhancement of the International Cooperation in the Field of Human Rights" and called for the continuation of consultations on the need to promote international cooperation in the field of human rights through genuine and constructive dialogue on the basis of mutual respect and equality of States.
- The Heads of State or Government placed special emphasis on the need to rationalise the work of the United Nations human rights machinery with a view to avoiding duplication of mandates through the appointment of special rapporteurs for different matters and for the human rights situation in the countries. While supporting the efforts of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, based on its mandate, they reiterated the necessity of speedy completion of the long overdue mandate of the General Assembly Third Committee Working Group on Human Rights.
- The Heads of State or Government equally underscored the need for a regional balance in the composition and structure of all entities involved in human rights, particularly the composition of the committees in charge of implementing human rights treaties where Members should be elected on the principles of a balanced geographical distribution and the representation of the basic legal systems.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled the General Assembly Resolution 52/120 entitled "Human Rights and Unilateral Coercive Measures", and re-stressed the fact that human rights should not be used as instruments of political pressure especially against Non-Aligned and other developing countries.
- The Heads of State or Government unequivocally condemned international terrorism as a criminal act and noted that terrorism endangers the very territorial integrity and security of States, due to acts of terrorism which take place within States, especially those which violate human rights in particular the right of life of all citizens and that destroy the physical and economic infrastructure, and attempt to de-stabilise legitimately constituted governments. They expressed their resolve to take speedy and effective measures to eliminate international terrorism and urged all states to fulfil their obligations under international law, including prosecuting or, where appropriate, extraditing the perpetrators of such acts and preventing the organisation and instigation of terrorism against other States from within outside their territories. They reaffirmed their support for General Assembly Resolution 46/51 of 27 January 1992 which unequivocally condemned as criminal and unjustifiable all acts, methods and practices of terrorism wherever and by whomever committed and called upon all States to fulfil their obligations under international laws to refrain from organising, instigating, assisting or participating in terrorist acts in other State, or acquiescing in or encouraging activities within their territory towards the commissioning of such acts.
- The Heads of State or Government further called on all States to endorse in principle the convening of an international conference under the auspices of the United Nations, to define terrorism, to differentiate it from the struggle for national liberation and to reach comprehensive and effective measures for concerted action. They also denounced the brutalisation of peoples kept under foreign occupation as the gravest form of terrorism. The Ministers condemned the use of state power for the suppression and violence against innocent civilians struggling against foreign occupation to exercise their inalienable right to self-determination. They stressed the sanctity of this right and urged that in this era of enlarged freedom and democracy, people under foreign occupation should be allowed to freely determine their destiny. In this context, they reaffirmed the Movement's principled position that the struggle of people under colonial or alien domination and foreign occupation for self-determination did not constitute terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled General Assembly Resolution 52/112 entitled "Human Rights and Terrorism" and renewed their concern at the gross violation of human rights perpetrated by terrorist groups, and reiterated their condemnation of all acts, methods and practices of terrorism. They also called for the need to promote and intensify international cooperation in order to implement effective measures against terrorism.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the need to review and assess the progress made in the field of human rights since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and to identify obstacles and ways and means through which they can be overcome both by means of measures at the national level and by enhanced international cooperation, with a view to ensuring full enjoyment of all human rights, taking into account developments that have taken place during the past fifty years.
RACISM AND RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
- The Heads of State or Government recalled that opposition to racism and racial discrimination and elimination of all forms of exploitation and inequality have been accorded the highest priority in the agenda of the Movement. The Movement had been in the forefront of the successful struggle against apartheid. They, however, noted disturbing trends regarding contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. They underlined that migrant workers and their families required special attention in this regard. They urged all States, in particular developed countries, to cooperate more closely with the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related Intolerance, and to take all steps, particularly in the legislative, administrative and educational fields, to combat new forms of racism. They also called upon members to help promote the goals of the Third Decade to combat Racism and Racial Discrimination.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their firm determination to the successful convening of the World Conference against racism, racial discrimination and xenophobia not later than the year 2001 through active participation and contribution in its preparatory process and that it should be action-oriented and aimed at the genuine eradication of contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, and related intolerance.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed serious concern at the acts of violence and the multiplication of such acts which are the manifestation of xenophobia and other forms of contemporary racism and racial discrimination.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned the dissemination of ideas of racist superiority and of intolerance, and incitement to racial hatred by various organisations, political circles (parties), advanced communication technologies including the Internet in the sphere of public opinion and society at large in various developed countries.
ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed paragraph 259 of the New Delhi Final Document and paragraph 99 of the Communiqué of the Meeting of NAM Ministers for Foreign Affairs on 25 September 1997, and in this regard, reiterated the need for a holistic approach through the entire cycle of women and girls, including the empowerment of women and economic independence of women. They pledged themselves to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women, and to support measures to prevent and eliminate all forms of violence against girls and women. They stressed the need to promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective at national levels, including in the design, follow-up and gender-based evaluation of all policies, as appropriate, in order to ensure effective implementation of all existing international agreements that promote the advancement of an equal status of women, including the Beijing Platform for Action.
- The Heads of State or Government were convinced that educational and health programmes needed to focus more on women, especially the girl-child. In the same vein the attack on poverty, in particular rural poverty, must take into consideration the special needs of women. Further, to enhance the role of women in the process of development, increased participation by women in decision-making at all levels was of cardinal importance. They affirmed that a conducive national and international environment contributed to and accelerated the advancement of women.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that today major changes in social development patterns including providing possibilities for active participation of women is considered among top priorities for achieving sustainable development. The role of the family unit as an institution which renders the highest degree of material and moral output, is extremely important. On this basis, macro and micro programming or policies should be designed in order to establish the moral and logical relation between the functions of the family and society as a whole as well as harmonise the individual and collective rights of the people.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and the Copenhagen Declaration and Programme of Action adopted by the World Summit for Social Development. In this context, they stressed the importance, inter alia, of the commitment of the countries of the Movement to adopt effective measures to ensure the enhancement of the participation of women in decision-making processes, equal access to education and health, including information regarding preventive health care, with due respect to religious beliefs and moral and cultural values.
- In view of the fact that the increase of extreme poverty, especially in the developing countries, adversely affects women to a greater degree, and in particular rural women and those victims of natural calamity who in many cases are heads of households, the Heads of State or Government declared that it is indispensable that national and international efforts for its eradication be oriented as a priority toward the improvement of the situation of women. They also noted that this alarming situation of women is caused, inter alia, by economic stagnation, negative economic growth, continued population growth, and increased external debt burdens, compounded by reductions in public expenditures for social programmes, chiefly in the development of literacy and education.
- Considering that the exploitation of and discrimination against women have their origins in the condition of girls in society, which is perpetuated by the survival of stereotypes and of traditional cultural practices and beliefs detrimental to women, the Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their resolve to take effective and expeditious measures for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women and girls. In this context, they particularly committed themselves to give priority attention to the education of girls.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their abhorrence at the increasing victimisation of women and the girl-child, especially in situations of armed conflict, and the systematic use of rape by the parties to conflicts, as an instrument of war, ethnic cleansing and terrorism. They called on countries to take the necessary measures against all such perpetrators of violence in order to put an end to such practices forthwith and to ensure international law and domestic legislation, make provision for the protection of women and girls in armed conflict. In this regard, the Heads of State or Government reaffirm Chapter IV.E of the Beijing Platform for Action, i.e. Women and Armed Conflict.
- The Heads of State or Government noted with satisfaction that a growing number of states have become party to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and that several Parties have removed their initial reservations, making this Convention one of the most universal international human rights instruments. They invited member countries of the Movement that have not yet ratified the Convention to do so, in order to reach the goal of its complete universality by the year 2000. They encouraged all Member States to submit their national reports to the Committee on the implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women.
- The Heads of State or Government agreed that the human rights of women and the girl-child were an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights. Gender-based violence, including resulting from cultural prejudice, international trafficking, including trafficking for purposes of prostitution, domestic violence, sexual harassment and abuse, were incompatible with the dignity and worth of women, and must be eliminated.
WOMEN AND ARMED CONFLICT
- The Heads of State or Government proposed measures for the detection, arrest, extradition and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes against humanity, with particular reference to women and girls, taking into account principles of the Charter of the UN, international conventions and treaties. They further resolved to fight against aggression, foreign occupation, ethnic and other types of conflict which affected women and men.
- The Heads of State or Government recognised the need to integrate effective actions to end violence against women into all areas of public and private life, as a means of working to overcome the violence and discrimination that women face because of such factors as race, language, ethnicity, poverty, culture, age and disability or because they are indigenous, migrants, displaced or refugee women.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their commitment to review national legislation where appropriate in order to affect complete legal prohibition of rape and all forms of violence against women and girls, such as domestic violence including rape, and to ensure that legislation that protects women and girls from violence is effectively implemented.
- The Heads of State or Government appealed to the international community to prohibit illicit trafficking, trade and transfer of small arms and light weapons and to control their excessive production, with a view to alleviating the suffering of women and children.
- The Heads of State or Government called upon all Member States:
- to provide and strengthen assistance to all women and girls in conflict and post-conflict situations, including through non-governmental organisations, as appropriate;
- to condemn and bring to an immediate end massive violations of human rights, especially in the form of genocide, and ethnic cleansing as a strategy of war, and its consequences, such as rape, including systematic rape of women in war situations;
- to maintain a gender perspective into humanitarian response to crises and armed conflicts and into post-conflict reconstruction activities;
- to enhance a culture of peace and the peaceful settlement of armed conflicts, including through mass media, audio and television as appropriate.
HUMANITARIAN PROBLEMS, REFUGEES, REPATRIATED AND INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS
- The Heads of State or Government urged the Members of the Movement and the international community, to reaffirm their determination and commitment to preserve the fundamental values centred on respect for the human being, as entrenched in the relevant international instruments. Convinced that the observance and application of international humanitarian law address the erosion of the underlying respect for the human being and could lead to a reduction in the number of victims of conflicts, the Heads of State or Government urged all members of the International Community to adhere to, promote, disseminate and assist in the adherence to, promotion and dissemination of international humanitarian law and human rights conventions. Knowledge of, respect for an observance of these international instruments would help to relieve the suffering of all victims, provide them with effective protection and create an atmosphere conducive to dialogue and the restoration of peace.
- The Heads of State or Government underlined the importance of promoting the respect for the universally recognised humanitarian principles and for the international humanitarian law, particularly those of the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their 1977 Additional Protocols. They invited those States which have not yet done so to ratify or accede to the two Protocols additional to the Geneva Convention of 1949.
- The Heads of State or Government considered it essential to make a distinction between humanitarian action and UN peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations as well as operational activities for development. In order to pursue the independence, neutrality and the impartiality of humanitarian action, such action must be kept distinct from, and independent of political or military action, in accordance with the respective mandates while ensuring the observance of international humanitarian laws.
- The Heads of State or Government agreed that, in conflict situations, efforts to alleviate the humanitarian consequences of a crisis should be carried out effectively and without delay, until a durable solution is reached
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that humanitarian assistance is not an alternative to development assistance and does not offer durable solution of those problems that are at the origin of the need to grant emergency assistance. In this context, they stated that financial, material and human resources devoted to emergency assistance should not be taken from those geared at development assistance.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the Movement's appreciation for the valuable and efficient work done by UN humanitarian agencies and bodies, all components of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, including National Societies and NGO's. Humanitarian action needed to be guarded by standards of behaviour seeking to maintain high standards of performance, in accordance with the principles of independence, impartiality, neutrality, humanity, and impact on the beneficiaries of their action. They emphasised that effective coordination among humanitarian actors, with due respect for the sovereignty of all states, was essential.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated their deep concern about the considerable rise in the number of refugees and noted with concern the increasingly large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons being hosted by developing countries. They also acknowledged the urgent need to further sensitise the international community, particularly the donor community and the international financial institutions, to the ever-increasing problems of refugee hosting developing countries and developing countries in situations of post-conflict reconstruction of those with protracted and heavy refugee caseloads. They also stressed the necessity of international burden-sharing and responsibility in refugee situations. They called for intensified financial and moral support to developing countries, in adherence to the principles of neutrality, non-conditionality and non-interference.
- The Heads of State or Government called on the international community to combine forces to assist refugee populations and internally displaced persons, in particular women and children, especially since they were in conditions of vulnerability. They also emphasised that every effort should be made to ensure that human rights were enjoyed by all refugees. They also urged the members of the Movement to reiterate their commitment to the principle of non-refoulement and safe return. They also noted the importance of non-restrictive asylum policies as well as respect for the institution of asylum.
- The Heads of State or Government condemned the increasing attacks on the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and urged all Member Countries to ensure respect for and protection of the personnel of humanitarian organisations in conformity with the relevant international laws. Humanitarian personnel and their agencies should respect the principles of neutrality and non-interference, as well as the cultural, religious and other values of the population in the countries where they operate.
- The Heads of State or Government wished to draw the attention of the international community to the steep decline in financial contributions to humanitarian bodies and agencies, causing the large scale downsizing of humanitarian operations, which directly and negatively effect the lives of the most vulnerable. They stressed that adequate funding must be made available for humanitarian activities. At the same time, contributions to humanitarian assistance should not be provided at the expense of development assistance. Furthermore, the response to international appeals should not be overly influenced by the levels of media interest and must be commensurate with the needs of the affected populations.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that humanitarian assistance is not an alternative to development assistance and to the durable solution of those problems that are at the origin of the need to grant emergency assistance. In this context, they stated that financial, material and human resources devoted to emergency assistance should not be taken from those geared at development assistance.
- The Heads of State or Government acknowledged the urgent need to further sensitise the international community, particularly the donor community, to the ever-increasing problems of refugee-hosting developing countries, especially those with protracted and heavy refugee caseloads. They stressed the necessity for international burden-sharing and international responsibility for dealing with refugee situations. They also called for intensifying their financial and moral support or through inter-alia admitting some of the refugee and displaced persons in the framework of resettlement programmes as an internationally recognised durable solution.
THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN
- The Heads of State or Government took note with appreciation of the preparations made by Colombia to host the First Encounter of Children of the Non-Aligned Countries, as adopted in the Plan of Action of the Meeting of Ministers of Culture of NAM. This Encounter will be held in October 1999, in Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to the early achievement of the goals of the World Summit for Children, in an effective and sustainable manner, and expressed their full support to the convening of a Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly in 2001 for a review of the Summit goals.
- The Heads of State or Government commended the role played by UNICEF in carrying out its programmes on the survival and development of children, particularly in its advocacy of the rights of the child to health, food and nutrition, safe water and sanitation, basic education and shelter as well as its special role in fostering the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. They acknowledged the rights-based approach being developed by UNICEF and stressed the need for provision of adequate resources to meet the needs of developing countries. Furthermore, they called on the international community, particularly donor countries, to provide increased resources to the fund to enable it to continue its work.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed section E of Chapter IV of the New Delhi Final Document on the Situation of Children, in particular their concern at the intolerable social and economic conditions faced by some children and the continued exploitation of children for pornography and prostitution and drug trafficking as well as the suffering of refugee and displaced children. They reiterated their call for urgent steps, in particular international cooperation, to address these problems. They also urged all remaining members who had not done so, to ratify or accede to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and called upon member states to support the work on an Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. They urged all countries to put an end to the traditional practices that affect the health of girl-children such as sexual mutilations and early marriage.
- The Heads of State or Government also expressed deep concern about the difficult situation of many children who are innocent victims of armed conflict in various parts of the world and over the recruitment, organisation and employment of children in armed conflicts. In this respect they urged member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement to adopt all necessary measures to put a stop to the use of children as soldiers and to ensure their de-mobilisation and reintegration into society, notably through appropriate education and training carried out in a manner that fosters self respect and dignity. While condemning this inhuman practice, they urged all countries and parties in armed conflicts to refrain from recruiting or arming children and called upon them to support the work on an optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.
- The Heads of State or Government expressed deep concern about the situation of children in difficult circumstances, in particular street children and the increasing number of orphans of HIV-Aids and called upon all member countries to take urgent and appropriate measures to protect them and improve their rehabilitation and living conditions.
- The Heads of State or Government urged all members to effectively ban employment of children in hazardous occupations and eliminate child labour through a comprehensive policy including, inter alia, encouragement for sending children to school and retaining them in the educational system through innovative approaches and by eliminating family poverty which is the major cause of child labour.
- The Heads of State or Government stressed the importance of increasing efforts aimed at helping children who had been or were in situations of armed conflict. In this regard they welcomed the first report of the UN Special Representative on the Situation of Children in Armed Conflict and pledged their support to activities aimed at improving the plight of children in situations of armed conflict.
- The Heads of State or Government felt that it was essential to promote awareness among the youth in Non-Aligned countries of the goals of the Movement and to encourage exchanges and interaction among young people of the member countries. They expressed concern at some of the problems facing young men and women, such as drugs and unemployment. In this context, they urged governments and concerned international organisations to devote greater efforts to the ten priority areas identified in the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond, namely education, employment, hunger and poverty, health, environment, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, leisure-time activities, girls and young women and the full and effective participation of youth in the life of society.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the holding of the First World Conference of Ministers Responsible for Youth Affairs in Lisbon, Portugal, 8 - 12 August 1998, where Ministers committed themselves to advancing national youth policies, active participation, development for all, peace, education, employment, health, as well as combating drug and substance abuse among the youth. Noting with concern the situation of youth living in poverty, they reiterated the urgency of creating more and better jobs for young women and young men and welcomed the commitment by Ministers to foster the further implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Lisbon Declaration on Youth and encouraged Non-Aligned countries, the UN System and the international community to participate actively in the follow-up to the Lisbon World Youth Conference, in accordance with UNGA Resolution 52/83 and within the framework of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the Year 2000 and Beyond. Furthermore, they agreed to ensure that young people's contributions are reflected in National Youth policies and programmes.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Lisbon Declaration on Youth and encouraged Non-Aligned countries, the UN System and the International community to participate actively in the follow-up to the Lisbon World Youth Conference, in accordance with UNGA Resolution 52/83 and within the framework of the World Programme of Action for Youth to the year 2000 and beyond. Furthermore, they agreed to ensure that young people's contributions are reflected in National Youth policies and programmes.
- The Heads of State or Government urged the United Nations to enhance coordination and coherence of UN programmes and activities in the consolidation of international efforts for the promotion and protection of the welfare of young women and men.
- They called upon the United Nations to assist developing countries in their efforts to implement the World Programme of Action for Youth to the year 2000 and beyond and the outcome of the First World Conference of Ministers responsible for Youth Affairs.
- The Heads of State or Government urged Non-Aligned and other developing countries to mark the commemoration of the International Year of Elderly People in 1999 and to take concrete measures to deal with the problems of the ageing of the population, the individual and social needs of elderly people and their contributions to the development of society with the view of having a society of all ages.
- The Heads of State or Government recalled Resolution 49/159 of 1994 whereby the UN General Assembly approved the Naples Political Declaration and Global Plan of Action against Organised Transnational Crime. They noted the establishment of the process in accordance with UNGA Resolution 52/85 of 1997 for the drafting of an International Convention against Organised Transnational Crime, and encouraged participation by all States.
- The Heads of State or Government pledged to facilitate and encourage the integration and consolidation by the international community to prevent and combat transnational crime. They further recognised that mutual assistance in criminal matters might be seen as a means of improving the quality of justice, especially in cases of concurrent jurisdiction. They acknowledged that cooperation was a way of achieving more equitable and efficient justice at lesser social and individual costs. At the same time, they reaffirmed that international effort against transnational crime should be carried out with the necessary respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States.
- The Heads of State or Government reaffirmed their commitment to coordinate their domestic efforts and strategies against transnational crime and to develop an adequate database on transnational crime and those methods most effective in combating crime of this nature.
- The Heads of State or Government noted the convening of the Tenth Congress on Crime Prevention and the Treatment of Offenders, due to be held in Vienna, Austria, in the year 2000 and encouraged members of the Movement to participate in its deliberations.
INTERNATIONAL DRUG CONTROL
- The Heads of State or Government expressed their support for the Political Declaration, the Declaration on the Guiding Principles of Drug Demand Reduction and the action plans adopted by the 20th Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly, on the issues of Amphetamine-type Stimulants, Precursors, Judicial Cooperation, Money Laundering and Eradication of Illicit Drug Crops and the Promotion of Alternative Development Programmes, which was held from 8-10 June 1998 in New York. They reaffirmed their determination to achieving concrete results on all the action plans adopted by the 20th Special Session, on the basis of the principle of shared responsibility for addressing the demand and supply-side of drug trafficking, in conformity with the principles and purposes enshrined in the UN Charter and other international instruments, in particular respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and non-interference in the internal affairs of States.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated the commitment to strengthen international cooperation to eradicate the growing and dangerous links between terrorist groups, drug traffickers and their para-military gangs, and other armed criminal groups, which have resorted to all types of violence, thus undermining the democratic institutions of states and violating basic human rights. They called for the adoption of effective measures to restrict the smuggling of arms which is linked to the drug trade and which is generating unacceptable levels of crime and violence affecting the national security and the economics of many states.
- The Heads of State or Government called upon the international community and international financial institutions to take necessary measures to prevent money laundering by drug traders, which also affects the international financial system.
- The Heads of State of Government expressed serious concern about the destabilising effects on society, particularly on youth, of the illicit use, production, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and renewed their commitment to fight against the illicit production, trafficking, distribution and consumption of drugs in all stages and modalities, as well as against money laundering, arms, ammunition, and explosives trafficking, and the deflection of precursors and essential chemical substances. They therefore called upon countries who have not done so to become a Party to and to implement the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988.
- The Heads of State or Government reiterated that the illicit drug chain begins with the insufficiently controlled trade of the precursors and essential chemical substances for the production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and is completed with the laundering of money through the international financial and commercial channels. Therefore, they considered that on account of its global nature, the drug problem can only be dealt with effectively through international cooperation based on the principle of shared responsibility in which national measures are articulated with a global, integral and balanced response to the illegal drugs problem.
- The Heads of State or Government considered the phenomenon of illicit drugs as a common threat and called for the commitment of all members of the international community for its solution. They rejected the unbalanced, un-equitable and selective form in which some developed countries seek to assign a major responsibility to specific countries, due to political considerations.
- The Heads of State or Government supported the regional and subregional cooperation in the fight against drug problems and in this connection welcomed the concerted efforts among the signatory countries of the 1993 Memorandum of Understanding on Drug Control in the east Asian subregion in combating illicit production, consumption and trafficking of narcotic drugs and commend their initiative to establish an operation network to combat drug crimes through intelligence sharing and harmonised policies.
- The Heads of State or Government welcomed the Hemispheric Anti Drug Strategy within the framework of the Organisation of American States (OAS), to establish an objective procedure for the multilateral evaluation of actions and cooperation to prevent and combat all aspects of the drug problem and related crimes based on the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity of states, shared responsibility and with a comprehensive and balanced approach.
- Since poverty underlies illicit crop cultivation, the Heads of State or Government called for enhanced international cooperation for alternative development programmes and for environmental rehabilitation in the areas of illicit crop cultivation. They further called upon the United Nations Drug Control Programme and developed countries to fully support developing countries in their fight against illicit drugs, through providing them with adequate financial and technical assistance.
- The Heads of State or Government called for the adoption of effective measures to restrict the smuggling of guns which is linked to the drug trade and which is generating unacceptable levels of crime and violence affecting the national security and the economies of many States.