Kuo Mo-jo, Chairman of the Chinese People's Committee for World Peace and against American Aggression and Vice-President of the World Peace Council, made a report on March 29 1952 on the U.S. crime of bacteriological warfare at the Executive Bureau meeting of the World Peace Council at Oslo.
For almost two years, the American aggressors, under the banner of the United Nations, have carried out armed intervention in Korea, conducting a campaign of savage destruction and slaughter. Owing to their military failures and the pressure of world public opinion, they accepted cease-fire negotiations nine months ago.
Nevertheless, they still do not have the slightest sincerity regarding a peaceful settlement of the Korean question. They have tried by all manner of unreasonable means to drag out and obstruct the truce talks. Two months ago they went so far as to begin employing inhuman bacteriological weapons.
Since January 28 this year, the American aggressors have begun a constant dissemination of large quantities of germ-laden insects and other poisonous objects over key cities and important communication lines both at the front and in the rear in Korea, stretching from east of Kaesong to the Pukhan River.
From February 29, they have also repeatedly dropped germ-laden objects over Northeast China. The areas affected include the six provinces of Liaotung, Liaohsi, Sungkiang, Kirin, Heilungkiang and Jehol, as well as the city of Mukden and 43 other counties and cities. The same occurred over the suburbs of Tsingtao, Shantung Province, on March 6 and 7
Of the more than 35 types of objects dropped by the American aggressors, the main types are flies, fleas, mosquitoes, lice, sandflies, crickets, springtails, locusts, rats, contaminated meat, dead fish,cottonwool, leaves, chicken feathers and others.
Many of these insects were previously unknown in these areas nor can they hatch at the present temperature. Results of scientific tests by bacteriologists and entomologists show that many of the insects carry lethal germs of highly infectious diseases: bubonic plague, cholera and typhoid.
The enemy on occasion has spread germs at the front by firing specially designed shells. But generally the enemy has used aircraft to drop bacteriological bombs or rats, dead fish, contaminated meat, and other objects carrying germs or infected with virus.
On some occasions, they have dropped infected insects together with propaganda leaflets. A large-scale anti-epidemic campaign is already under way to exterminate these germs in parts of Korea and China.
Medical experts, veterinarians and agricultural specialists have all been mobilised. Filled with boundless indignation, the masses of people—be they men or women, old or young—have all joined in the fight to smash the bacteriological warfare.
They are determined to swiftly exterminate the dangerous insects and germs dropped by the American forces and prevent them from spreading. This inhuman crime of the American aggressors is without precedent in history.
During the Second World War, even Hitler and Mussolini did not use bacteriological weapons. Though the Japanese imperialists used them in China, they never employed them on so great a scale as do the Americans today. If no effective measures are immediately taken to check America's crime of using germ weapons, the scope will be further extended.
The calamity which has befallen the Korean and Chinese peoples today may strike all the peace-loving people tomorrow. In face of indisputable facts, U.S. authorities like Acheson and Ridgway, however, are still continuing their sophistry and denials. Acheson issued a statement on March 4 saying that the "United Nations forces have not used, and are not using, any sort of bacteriological warfare " But the fact is that the U.S. government is not only using bacteriological weapons now but had used them before.
The U.S. government began its preparations for germ warfare as early as the end of 1941. G. W. Merok, who was chairman of the Biological Warfare Committee of the U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Service issued a detailed report with the concurrence of the U.S. government on January 4, 1946.
This report described how the United States was carrying out large-scale systematic research eon bacteriological warfare. American bacteriological experts have constantly boasted of this research. In the summer of 1949, the U.S. government carried out bacteriological experiments on Eskimos, causing an outbreak of bubonic plague among them. This is a fact universally known.
The U.S. government has also made preparations for a long time to carry out bacteriological warfare in the Far East. Such preparations were made in close collaboration with Japanese bacteriological war criminals who were experienced in this crime. In 1946, MacArthur made use of their criminal experience by sending 18 selected Japanese bacteriological war criminals to serve in bacteriological warfare centres in Maryland, Mississippi and Utah, U.S.A. The New York Times on April 13, 1951, reported the establishment of bacteriological research stations in Japan.
Both MacArthur and his successor Ridgway have actively encouraged the continuation of Japanese bacteriological research and production. A Telepress dispatch of December 5 last year reported from Rangoon that two U.S. officials who were unwilling to disclose their names revealed that Ridgway had sent three Japanese bacteriological war criminals to Korea to carry out germ warfare work. They are Shiro Ishii, former Lieutenant-General in the Japanese Army Medical Service, Jiro Wakamatsu, former Major-General of the Veterinary Service, and Masajo Kitano.
The purpose of bacteriological warfare is to spread epidemic disease on a large scale in areas under the enemy's control and cause mass extermination. But to cause disease on a wide scale the user cannot rely solely on pathogenic agents. He must also have good knowledge of the physiological conditions and the physiological properties of human beings. (Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons, published in Moscow, 1950, English edition, page 299) This is exactly the criminal experience which Shiro Ishii gained in carrying out research on germ warfare in China.
This was confessed by Lieutenant-General Kajitsuka Ryuji, formerly chief of the Medical Administration of the Japanese Kwantung Army in December 1949 at the Khabarovsk Military Tribunal. Therefore, before carving out germ warfare. the United States cooperated with the Japanese bacteriological war criminals to make a criminal research into the physiological conditions and physiological properties of the Chinese and Korean peoples.
In March 1951, Brigadier-General Crawford F. Sams, then chief of the Public health and Welfare Section of Ridgway's headquarters in Tokyo, led landing craft No. 1091 of the U.S. naval forces to make a secret landing at Wonsan harbour, Korea. Aboard this craft called a bubonic plague ship, captured Chinese from the small island within the harbour were subjected to plague tests. This was revealed in the April 9, 1951 issue of the American magazine Newsweek.
An A.P. dispatch from Koje Island reported on May 18, last year, that this: bubonic plague ship later went to Koje Island. Experiments were conducted on the ship upon captured personnel of the Korean People's Army and about 3,000 tests were made daily.
The use of bacteriological warfare is very dangerous, and bacteria have no will and can boomerang on the users—this is the subject of an article which appeared in the April 1950 issue of the Military Review, organ of the U.Ss Army Command and General Staff College, Kansas, U.S.A. American bacteriological warfare specialists have long known this. And to carry out bacteriological warfare, their own troops must have counter-epidemic preparations beforehand so that they will not be endangered. The U.S. government has thoroughly made these preparations. This is proved by inoculation certificates of captured American and Syngman Rhee soldiers.
What is most noteworthy is that American and Rhee troops have had inoculations against yellow fever, plague and cholera. Yellow fever is a tropical disease of the American continent which has never occurred in the history of China and Korea. Plague, too, has never appeared in Korea. Since 1947, cholera has not occurred in North Korea. Isn't the motive behind the inoculations against these diseases in these areas easy to divine?
It is also necessary to make psychological preparations for carrying out bacteriological warfare, that is, to de-humanise those who carry out bacteriological warfare or drop bacteriological bombs. This psychological preparation has been thoroughly made by the U.S. government.
Far back in 1946, the June 15 issue of Collier's quoted the words of Major-General Alden H. Waitt, then Chief of the U.S. Army Chemical Warfare Service, saying "I am entirely out of sympathy with the talk about the humanity or inhumanity of a weapon."
Recently, this no sympathy argument has been extended into an argument of economy value. On January 25 of this year, Brigadier General W. Creasy, Chief of the Research and Development Division of the Army Chemical Corps, in a statement made in Washington, considered that germs, gas and radio-active materials are the cheapest weapons, they can destroy the enemy but preserve his property.
On March 5, when American troops were carrying out bacteriological warfare in Korea and China, Major-General Egbert Bullen, Chief of the Army Chemical Corps of U.S. Defence Department, published a typical statement in the Congressional Record, repeating Creasy's argument of economic value and advocating unlimited use of ,bacteriological weapons.
He openly admitted that the Chemical Corps Uof the American troops in Korea has been very active since July 4, 1950, and that the number of the chemical units and their activities are constantly increasing. What is worthy of notice is that the statement of Major-General Bullen was made on March 5 while Acheson made his statement of denial on March 4.
This proves that Acheson's lies can by no means cover up the incontrovertible facts. On the one hand, Acheson denied the monstrous crime of the U.S. government, and on the other hand he arbitrarily fabricated the slander of the Chinese and Korean peoples' "inability" to prevent epidemics, saying that epidemics were spreading in China and Korea and demanding that so-called investigations be carried out by the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Probably, Acheson considers himself very clever and thinks that he can hoodwink the good people throughout the world by such hocus-pocus. But it is quite futile. The question today is not that ordinary epidemics have occurred within the boundaries of China and Korea, but that the American aggressors are creating large-scale man-made epidemics in these two countries.
The people of China and Korea are using great strength to resist and exterminate this criminal action. If an investigation is to be carried out, it should be of the American crime of using bacteriological warfare, and not an investigation of ordinary epidemics. In this respect, we should thank the Investigation Commission to Korea headed by Brandweiner which was organised by the International Association of Democratic Lawyers, because it has solemnly carried out work which contributes much to humanity.
This Commission went to Korea just as the American forces were carrying
out bacteriological warfare, and, therefore, the Commission members are
eyewitnesses of the crimes committed by these criminals.
The members of this international investigation commission are all internationally known lawyers, and, in fact, they are in the position of impartial judges.
Unanimously, they have confirmed that the American use of bacteriological warfare is an irrefutable fact. They will publish detailed reports to the whole world. We can believe that the sleight-of-hand tricks played by Acheson absolutely cannot deceive the people of the world.
The monstrous crime of the U.S. government is the gravest threat to the security of mankind and world peace. It violates human justice, tramples on all international conventions and directly violates the solemn resolution demanding the prohibition of bacteriological weapons, chemical weapons and other weapons of mass destruction which was passed at the Warsaw World Peace Congress in 1950 and represents the common desire of mankind.
Therefore, the Chinese people unanimously support the solemn statements issued on February 24 and March 8 by Foreign Minister Chou En-lai of the Central People's Government, and denounce this monstrous crime of the U.S. government before the people throughout the world and are determined, together with all peace-loving people, to struggle to the end to curb this criminal action by the American aggressors.
For the security of mankind and world peace, we submit this report concerning the facts about American bacteriological warfare to this Executive Bureau meeting of the World Peace Council and urge that the meeting mobilise all peace-loving people throughout the world to take resolute and effective action to curb this unprecedented crime by the U.S. government and take necessary moral sanctions against it.
Throughout history, mankind has suffered many calamities. But in its struggle against every calamity, mankind has won final victory. We firmly believe that any vicious action by the American imperialists also can be defeated, and will be defeated.
The Chinese people fully support the appeal of Joliot-Curie. On our sart, we would welcome World Peace Council initiative inorganising a broad international commission composed of honest sincere and independent people and joined by world-renowned scientists and by people who have not joined our movement but sincerely support the eause of peace and have a humanitarian point of view.
The task of the commission would be to collect the mass of facts concerning the violation by American forces in Korea and China of the 1925 Geneva Protocol which unconditionally prohibits the use of bacteriological weapons.
We also support the proposal of the World Peace Council for convocation of an international representative meeting attended by people and organisations of diverse points of view and beliefs, which will call on people of conscience to struggle for the unconditional prohibition of bacteriological weapons and condemn the American aggressors for their refusal to ratify the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and their inhuman use of bacteriological weapons in China and Korea.